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85 Cards in this Set

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ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN, ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM
A SERIES OF COMPOUNDS THAT TRANSFER ELECTRONS FROM ONE COMPOUND TO ANOTHER, GENERATING ATP BY OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
FERMENTATION TEST
METHOD USED TO DETERMINE WHETHER A BACTERIUM OR YEAST FERMENTS A SPECIFIC CARBOHYDRATE; USUALLY PERFORMED IN A PEPTONE BROTH CONTAINING THE CARBOHYDRATE, A pH INDICATOR, AND AN INVERTED TUBE TO TRAP GAS
HOMOLACTIC
DESCRIBING AN ORGANISM THAT PRODUCES ONLY LACTIC ACID FROM FERMENTATION; E.G., STREPTOCOCCUS
NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITOR
AN INHIBITORY CHEMICAL THAT DOES NOT COMPETE WITH THE SUBSTRATE FOR AN ENZYME'S ACTIVE SITE
LUCIFERASE
X
FLAVOPROTEIN
A PROTEIN CONTAINING THE COENZYME FLAVIN; FUNCTIONS AS AN ELECTRON CARRIER IN ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINS
CHLOROSOME
PLASMA MEMBRANE FOLDS IN GREEN SULFUR BACTERIA CONTAINING BACTERIOCHLOROPHYLLS
CHEMOAUTOTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT USES AN INORGANIC CHEMICAL AS AN ENERGY SOURCE AND CO2 AS A CARBON SOURCE
CHEMIOSMOSIS
A MECHANISM THAT USES A PROTON GRADIENT ACROSS A CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE TO GENERATE ATP
AEROBE
AN ORGANISM REQUIRING MOLECULAR OXYGEN (O2) FOR GROWTH
KREBS CYCLE
A PATHWAY THAT CONVERTS TWO-CARBON COMPOUNDS TO CO2, TRANSFERRING ELECTRONS TO NAD+ AND OTHER CARRIERS; ALSO CALLED TRICARBOXYLIC ACID (TCA) CYCLE OR CRITIC ACID CYCLE
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
A CATABOLIC PROCESS, BEGINNING WITH GLYCOLYSIS, THAT PRODUCES LACTIC ACID TO REOXIDIZE NADH
UDP-N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE (UDPNAc)
A COMPOUND NECESSARY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
THE MOVEMENT OF AN ELECTRON FROM CHLOROPHYLL THROUGH A SERIES OF ELECTRON ACCEPTORS AND BACK TO CHLOROPHYLL; ANOXYGENIC; PURPLE AND GREEN BACTERIAL PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
FMN
FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE; A COENZYME THAT FUNCTIONS IN THE TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
COFACTOR
(1) THE NONPROTEIN COMPONENT OF AN ENZYME (2) A MICROORGANISM OR MOLECULE THAT ACTS WITH OTHERS TO SYNERGISTICALLY ENHANCE OR CAUSE DISEASE
SAPROPHYTE
AN ORGANISM THAT OBTAINS ITS NUTRIENTS FROM DEAD ORGANIC MATTER
PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
THE PRODUCTION OF ATP IN A SERIES OF REDOX REACTIONS; ELECTRONS FROM CHLOROPHYLL INITIATE THE REACTIONS
ANOXYGENIC
NOT PRODUCING MOLECULAR OXYGEN; TYPICAL OF CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
PHOSPHORYLATION
THE ADDITION OF A PHOSPHATE GROUP TO AN ORGANIC MOLECULE
PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY
A METABOLIC PATHWAY THAT CAN OCCUR SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH GLYCOLYSIS TO PRODUCE PENTOSES AND NADH WITHOUT ATP PRODUCTION; ALSO CALLED HEXOSE MONOPHOSPHATE SHUNT
AMINATION
THE ADDITION OF AN AMINO GROUP
CYTOCHROME OXIDASE
AN ENZYME THAT OXIDIZES CYTOCHROME C
AEROBIC RESPIRATION
RESPIRATION IN WHICH THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IS MOLECULAR OXYGEN (O2)
PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA
GAMMA-PROTEOBACTERIA; STRICTLY ANAEROBIC AND PHOTOTROPHIC; USE REDUCED SULFUR COMPOUNDS AS ELECTRON DONORS FOR CO2 FIXATION
FAD
FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE; A COENZYME THAT FUNCTIONS IN THE REMOVAL AND TRANFER OF HYDROGEN IONS (H+) AND ELECTRONS FROM SUBSTRATE MOLECULES
PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA
ALPHA-PROTEOBACTERIA; STRICTLY ANAEROBIC AND PHOTOTROPHIC; GROW ON YEAST EXTRACT IN DARK; USE REDUCED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS ELECTRON DONORS FOR CO2 FIXATION
RIBOZYME
AN ENZYME CONSISTING OF RNA THAT SPECIFICALLY ACTS ON STRANDS OF RNA TO REMOVE INTRONS AND SPLICE TOGETHER THE REMAINING EXONS
RESPIRATION
A SERIES OF REDOX REACTIONS IN A MEMBRANE THAT GERNERATES ATP; THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IS USUALLY AN INORGANIC MOLECULE
UBIQUINONE
A LOW-MOLECULAR WEIGHT, NONPROTEIN CARRIER IN AN ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN; ALSO CALLED COENXZME Q
DECARBOXYLATION
THE REMOVAL OF CO2 FROM AN AMINO ACID
FERMENTATION
THE ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN WHICH THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IS AN ORGANIC MOLECULE, ATP IS SYNTHESIZED BY SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION, AND O2 IS NOT REQUIRED
LIPASE
AN ENZYME THAT BREAKS DOWN TRIGLYCERIDES INTO THEIR COMPONENT GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACIDS
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
RESPIRATION IN WHICH THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IS AN INORGANIC MOLECULE OTHER THAN MOLECULAR OXYGEN (O2); FOR EXAMPLE, A NITRATE ION OR CO2
DEHYDROGENATION
THE LOSS OF HYDROGEN ATOMS FROM A SUBSTRATE
REDUCTION
THE ADDITION OF ELECTRONS TO A MOLECULE
CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE
THE FIXATION OF CO2 INTO REDUCED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; USED BY AUTOTROPHS
OXIDATION
THE REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS FROM A MOLECULE
PARASITE
AN ORGANISM THAT DERIVES NUTRIENTS FROM A LIVING HOST
HETEROLACTIC
DESCRIBING AN ORGANISM THAT PRODUCES LACTIC ACID AND OTHER ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS AS END-PRODUCTS OF FERNENTATION; E.G., ESCHERICHIA
LIGHT-INDEPENDENT (DARK) REACTIONS
THE PROCESS BY WHICH ELECTRONS AND ENERGY FROM ATP ARE USED TO REDUCE CO2 TO SUGAR; SEE CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE
LIGHT (LIGHT-DEPENDENT) REACTION
THE PROCESS BY WHICH LIGHT ENERGY IS USED TO CONVERT ADP AND PHOSPHATE TO ATP; PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
OXYGENIC
PRODUCING OXYGEN, AS IN PLANT AND CYANOBACTERIAL PHOTOSYNTHESIS
GREEN SULFUR BACTERIA
GRAM-NEGATIVE, NONPROTEOBACTERIA; STRICTLY ANAEROBIC AND PHOTOTROPHIC; NO GROWTH IN DARK; USE REDUCED SULFUR COMPOUNDS AS ELECTRON DONORS FOR CO2 FIXATION
METABOLISM
THE SUM OF ALL THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN A LIVING CELL
TRANSAMINATION
THE TRANSFER OF AN AMINO GROUP FROM AN AMINO ACID TO ANOTHER ORGANIC ACID
HALOENZYME
X
FEEDBACK INHIBITION
INHIBITION OF AN ENZYME IN A PARTICULAR PATHWAY BY THE ACCUMULATION OF THE END-PRODUCT OF THE PATHWAY; ALSO CALLED END-PRODUCT INHIBITION
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP COUPLED WITH ELECTRON TRANSPORT
HETEROTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT REQUIRES AN ORGANIC CARBON SOURCE; ALSO CALLED ORGANOTROPH
OXIDATION-REDUCTION
A COUPLED REACTION IN WHICH ONE SUBSTANCE IS OXIDIZED AND ONE IS REDUCED; ALSO CALLED REDOX REACTION
GLYCOLYSIS
THE MAIN PATHWAY FOR THE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE TO PYRUVIC ACID; ALSO CALLED EMBDEN-MEYERHOF PATHWAY
PHOTOTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT USES LIGHT AS ITS PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE
ANABOLISM
ALL SYNTHESIS REACTIONS IN A LIVING ORGANISM; THE BUILDING OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES FROM SIMPLER ONES
CHEMOTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT USES OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS AS ITS PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE
CATABOLISM
ALL DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS IN A LIVING ORGANISM; THE BREAKDOWN OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS INTO SIMPLER ONES
ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION
THE PROCESS IN WHICH AN ENZYME'S ACTIVITY IS CHANGED BECAUSE OF BINDING TO THE ALLOSTERIC SITE
ENTNER-DOUDOROFF PATHWAY
AN ALTERNATE PATHWAY FOR THE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE TO PYRUVIC ACID
NAD+
A COENZYME THAT FUNCTIONS IN THE REMOVAL AND TRANSFER OF HYDROGEN ION (H+) AND ELECTRONS FROM SUBSTRATE MOLECULES
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
THE CONVERSION OF LIGHT ENERGY FROM THE SUN INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY; THE LIGHT-FUELED SYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATE FROM CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
CARBON FIXATION
THE SYNTHESIS OF SUGARS BY USING CARBONS FROM CO2; CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE
SATURATION
THE CONDITION IN WHICH THE ACTIVE SITE ON AN ENZYME IS OCCUPIED BY THE SUBSTRATE OR PRODUCT AT ALL TIMES
CHEMOHETEROTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT USES ORGANIC MOLECULES AS A SOURCE OF CARBON AND ENERGY
ALCOHOL FERMENTATION
A CATABOLIC PROCESS, BEGINNING WITH GLYCOLYSIS, THAT PRODUCES ETHYL ALCOHOL TO REOXIDIZE NADH
COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR
A CHEMICAL THAT COMPETES WITH THE NORMAL SUBSTRATE FOR THE ACTIVE SITE OF AN ENZYME
ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX
A TEMPORARY UNION OF AN ENZYME AND ITS SUBSTRATE
GREEN NONSULFUR BACTERIA
GRAM-NEGATIVE, NONPROTEOBACTERIA; ANAEROBIC AND PHOTOTROPHIC; USE REDUCED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS ELECTRON DONORS FOR CO2 FIXATION
COENZYME
A NONPROTEIN SUBSTANCE THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH AND THAT ACTIVATES AN ENZYME
AMPHIBOLIC PATHWAY
A PATHWAY THAT IS BOTH ANABOLIC AND CATABOLIC
PHOTOAUTOTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT USES LIGHT AS ITS ENERGY SOURCE AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) AS ITS CARBON SOURCE
ACTIVE SITE
A REGION ON AN ENZYME THAT INTERACTS WITH THE SUBSTRATE
DEAMINATION
THE REMOVAL OF AN AMINO GROUP FROM AN AMINO ACID TO FORM AMMONIA; AMMONIFICATION
ANAEROBE
AN ORGANISM THAT DOES NOT REQUIRE MOLECULAR OXYGEN (O2) FOR GROWTH
METABOLIC PATHWAY
A SEQUENCE OF ENZYMATICALLY CATALYZED REACTIONS OCCURRING IN A CELL
NONCYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
THE MOVEMENT OF AN ELECTRON FROM CHLOROPHYLL TO NAD+; PLANT AND CYANOBACTERIAL PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
AUTOTROPH
A MUTANT MICROORGANISM WITH A NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT THAT IS ABSENT IN THE PARENT
BETA OXIDATION
THE REMOVAL OF TWO CARBON UNITS FROM A FATTY ACID TO FORM ACETYL CoA
NADP+
A COENZYME SIMILAR TO NAD+
ALLOSTERIC SITE
THE SITE ON AN ENZYME AT WHICH A NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITOR BINDS
CYTOCHROME
A PROTEIN THAT FUNCTIONS AS AN ELECTRON CARRIER IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION
THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP BY DIRECT TANS FER OF A HIGH-ENERGY PHOSPHATE GROUP FROM AN INTERMEDIATE METABOLIC COMPOUND TO ADP
DENATURATION
A CHANGE IN THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN, USUALLY MAKING IT NONFUNCTIONAL
PHOTOHETEROTROPH
AN ORGANISM THAT USES LIGHT AS ITS ENERGY SOURCE AND AN ORGANIC CARBON SOURCE
APOENZYME
THE PROTEIN PORTION OF AN ENZYME, WHICH REQUIRES ACTIVATION BY A COENZYME
COENZYME A (CoA)
A COENZYME THAT FUNCTIONS IN DECARBOXYLATION