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43 Cards in this Set

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True or False:
Elements consist of a single atoms.
True
Two or more linked elements make up a ____________.
Molecule
The six elements commonly used in living things are:
Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur
List three reasons why carbon is an ideal molecule for life:
1. Can form 4 stable bonds
2. Bonds can be broken or formed at temps below boiling
3. Can form linear or branching compounds
Covalent bonds are __________ and occur through the __________ of electrons.
Strong
Sharing
Living systems break covalent bonds using __________.
Enzymes
Ionic bonds are _________ and are bonds that form between atoms that are ____________.
Weak
Charged
Negative atoms are termed _________, while positive ions are termed ___________.
Anions
Cations
Hydrogen bonds are _________, they form because hydrogen atoms have a slightly ____________ charge.
Weak
Positive
Many hydrogen bonds working together can be very ________. Two biomolecules must have complementary _____________ at the site of interaction.
Strong
Topology
Water is a great __________, the substance that it dissolves is termed a _________.
Solvent
Solute
Molecules that are _________ can be dissolved by water.
Polar
pH is the measure of ________ of a solution. It is the ratio of _______ to __________.
Acidity
Hydrogens (protons) to OH's (hydroxyls)
The concentration of H and OH equals _______ M.
10^-14
A solution with a pH of 6 would have 10^____ H and 10^____ OH's.
10^-6 H
10^-8 OH
Biological macromolecules are made with smaller subunits:
Protein subunits are:
Nucleic acid subunits are:
Carbohydrate subunits are:
Lipid subunits are:
Amino acids
Nucleotides
Sugars
Fats
There are _____ amino acids that are used in bio systems that share a common _________.
20
Backbone
Amino acids are distinguished by different _______ _________ that have different characteristics like:
Side chains
hydrophobic/philic, charge, sulfur
Amino acids are linked together during ___________.
Translation
The ribosome forms a ________ bond btwn the ___-terminus of one aa and the ___-terminus of another.
Peptide
C
N
The peptide bond permits substantial rotation freedom except in _________.
Proline
Protein primary structure is a __________ sequence of amino acids.
Linear
Protein secondary structure is local folding patterns within a polypeptide, like ____-_________ and ____-__________ __________.
Alpha helix
Beta pleated sheets
Protein _________ structure is the folding pattern of an entire polypeptide.
Tertiary
Protein ___________ structure is the folding pattern of a protein that is made up of >2 polypeptides.
Quaternary
_____________ form the basis of cellular energy production and cellular materials.
Carbohydrates
____________ are made up of 5 or 6 carbons and can be linear or ring.
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides are ____ _________ monosaccharides and are held together by _____________ bonds.
Two ringed
Glycosidic
Polysaccharides are >3 monosaccharides that can form complex ___________ structures. They are a storage form of _________.
Structures
Energy
___________ make cellulose, which is support for the cell.
Polysaccharides
DNA is a polymer made up of ____________, a __________ backbone, and one of four _____________ bases.
Deoxyribose
Phosphate
Nitrogenous
The nucleotides are held together by ______________ bonds.
Phosphodiester
DNA in a cell is ________-stranded and the bases are __________.
Double
Complementary (AT and GC)
The strands are anti-________ and have __________.
Antiparallel
Polarity (5'-3')
RNA is _________-stranded and has ___________ instead of __________.
Single
Uracil
Thymine
Lipids provide a barrior to the outside world. They allow ____________ of cellular functions and are soluble in __________ solvents (such as ____________).
Compartmentalization
Organic (hydrophobic)
Chlorophorm
Simple lipids contain only C, O and ____ and are most commonly in the form of fats (___________ and fatty acids)
H
Glycerols
Fatty acids are a _________ molecule with a __________ backbone. Many have _________ carbon bonds.
Linear
Carbon
Double
If a fatty acid has no double bonds it is ___________, one double bond is ______________ and two or more is _________________.
Saturated
Monounsaturated
Polyunsaturated
The base unit of a steroid is a __________ ring. Some steroids have a slight _________ which makes them important components of cell membranes.
Steroid ring
Charge
Compound lipids are composed of _________ ________ and other chemicals.
Simple lipids
One large group of compound lipids are the ____________ which compose the membrane bilayers.
Phospholipids
Phospholipids are ____________, meaning they have polar and nonpolar ends.
Amphipathic