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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe anabolism
Buildup of small molecules
Products are large molecules
Mediated by enzymes
Energy is required (endergonic)
Breakdown of large molecules
Products are small molecules
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle
Mediated by enzymes
Energy is released (exergonic)
Reusable proteins that increase the rate of chemical reaction
Substance acted upon by the enzyme
Enzyme-Substrate Complex
Holds the substrate that the enzyme molecule recognizes
Breaks chemical bonds
Active site
Substrate is positioned and oriented to react
Enzyme in human tears and saliva that digests the cell walls of gram (+) bacteria
Nonprotein participant of enzymes that are metal ions such as magnesium (Mg2+), Iron (Fe2+), or Zinc (Zn2+)
A nonprotein participant that is a small group of organic molecules.
Electron carriers
Hydrolyzing a substrate (sucrose)
Enzymatic reaction that is a single substrate to product reaction
An enzyme hydrolyzing the substrate sucrose into glucose and fructose products.
Metabolic pathway
Sequence of chemical reactions, each reaction catalyzed by a different enzyme, in which the product of one reaction serves as a substrate for the next reaction.
Anabolic or catabolic
Products between the stages of a metabolic pathway
Enzyme inhibition
• Feedback inhibition
• Sulfonamide drugs
• Any substance that reacts with sulfhydryl groups on active sites will tie up the groups and inhibit enzyme activity.
o A heavy metal such as silver is used as a disinfectant.
• Blocking an active site with a compound closely related to the normal substrate
o Sulfonamide
Feedback inhibition
First enzyme in the pathway is inhibited causing no products to be available to “feed” the rest of the pathway. The final end product binds to a site on the enzyme, causing the shape of the active site to change so it can no longer bind substrate.
Sulfonamide drug
Causes enzyme inhibition by blocking an active site with a compound closely related to the normal substrate
• Energy currency
• In bacteria it is formed on the cell membrane
• In eukaryotic microbes the reaction occur in the mitochondria
• Supplies energy for binary fission, flagellar motion, and spore formation
• Fuels protein synthesis and carbohydrate breakdown.
• If cell runs out of ATP it dies
• Unstable
o Three phosphate groups all have negative charges on oxygen atoms and are packed together
o Cant be stored
Making ATP more stable
• Hydrolyze phosphate group
• Holding the last phosphate group on the molecule produces a more stable ADP molecule and a free phosphate group
The addition of a phosphate group to another molecule
Storing Energy
Since ATP molecule are unstable, they cannot be stored. Therefore, microbial cells synthesize large organic compounds like glycogen or lipids for energy storage. As needed, the chemical energy in these molecules can be released in catabolic reactions and used to reform ATP from ADP and phosphate.
Key source of energy for ATP production
Coupled reaction
A reaction step in a metabolic pathway that requires energy
Cellular respiration
Cells make ATP by harvesting energy from exergoinc metabolic pathway
Aerobic respiration
Cells consume oxygen in making ATP
Anaerobic respiration
Make ATP without oxygen
• First stage of energy extraction from the chemical breakdown of glucose
• Occurs in the cytosol of bacteria and involves a metabolic pathway that converts glucose to a 3-carbon organic molecule call pyruvate.
• Takes place in the absence of oxygen
Krebs cycle
Citric acid cycle
In eukaryotic microbes the Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria
Pyruvate from glycolysis combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA