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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
pathogenicity
ability of a m/o to cause disease
virulence
the degree of pathogenicity
virulence factors
those properties an organism has that makes it virulent
ID50
infectious dose that causes infection in 50% of hosts
LD50
lethal dose for 50% of hosts
leukocidins, hemolysins
cause RBS and WBC to lyse
coagulase
clots fibrinogen in blood. forms clot around cell. protects cell from phagocytosis
bacterial kinases
break down clots. allows m/o to spread away from site of infection. used therapeutically

use of streptokinase or staphylokinase
hyaluronidase
the spreading factor
breaks down hyaluronic acid between cells and connective tissue. m/o penetrates tissue

Clostridium perfringens
collagenase
allows collagen to break it down

Clostridium perfringens
antigenic variation
bacteria change surface antigen
exotoxin vs endotoxin
exo - proteins excreted by a bacterium

endo - lipid A of LPS of Gram - cells
exotoxins
most extracellular enzymes
coded for by plasmids or chromosome of cell
secreted by both gram - and +
antitoxin
antibody to toxin
toxoid
chemically modified toxin used as a vaccine

DTaP vaccine contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
A-B toxins (Type II toxins)
‘A’ for active, and ‘B’ for binding. The B component binds to the cell’s membrane, and the A component enters the cell and carries out the toxic activity
Membrane-distrupting toxins (type II toxins)
cause host membrane to lyse
Superantigens (type I toxins)
powerful protein antigens that stimulate T cells to release huge amounts of cytokines

causes shock
Corynbacterium diphtheriae
diphtheria toxin is an A-B toxin that stops protein synthesis
Clostridium bolulinum
botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin (A-B) that causes flaccid paralysis
Clostridium tetani
tetanus toxin is a neurotoxin (A-B) that causes spastic paralysis
Vibrio cholerae
cholera toxin is an enterotoxin (A-B) that causes massive diarrhea
Staphylococcus aureus
produces an entterotoxin that causes food poisoning
Endotoxin
LPS on outermembrane of Gram - cells

polysaccharide 'O' antigen
lipid A

causes fever maybe shock
endotoxic shock
septic shock

macrophages secrete tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
R factors
plasmids that carry genes that encode proteins to make an organism resistant to one or more antibiotics