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59 Cards in this Set

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symbiosis
the relationship between normal microbiota and a host
etiology
the study of the cause of a disease
locations of normal microbiota in the bosy
nose, eyes, mouth, throat, gut, etc
normal microbiota protect the host in two ways
crowding out pathogens and producing acids
systemic disease
infectio throughout the body
bacteremia
bacteria in blood
septicemia
toxins and bacteria in blood
gram negative bacterial infections produce...
exotoxins, causing very bad infections
incubation period
no signs or symptoms
prodromal period
mild signs or symptoms
emerginf infectious disease
diseases that are happening more frequently
5 factors that effect emerging diseases
change in weather, modern transportation, ecological disaster, public health failures (missed immunization or ineffective ones.)
epidemiology
study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted.
John Snow
1848-1849 mapped the occurence of cholera in London.
Seimelweiss
OB GYB who decreased puerperal fever.
florence Nightinggale
showed that increased sanitation decreased epidemic
Morbitity
incidence of specific disease
mortality
deaths from notifiable diseases
morbidity rate is
# of specific disease in given time period
MMWR ....
morbidity and mortality weekly report
pathogenicity
ability to cause disease
virulence
capacity to be pathogenic
portals of entry for bacteria
mucous membranes, skin (thorugh microscopic breaks and scratches), parenteral route 9IV, catheters)
most common poratl for bacteria is...
respiratory tract
ID 50
the infectious dose for 50% of the population. (50% of the population infected)
LD 50
lethal dose (toxin) for 50% of a sample population
adherance
bacteria latch on to a specific spot to grow
adhesins
ligands bind to receptors on a host cell)
glycocalyx
sticky covering some cells have
Enzymes in blood
coagulase, kinases (digest fibrin clots), collagenase (hydrolyzes collagen)
IgA proteases
destroy IgA antibodies, take away immunity.
antigenic variation
alters surface proteins
How do bacteria develop resistance?
by sharing plasmids
toxin
substance contribute to pathogenicity. many damage cell membrane
toxoid
inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
toxemia
presence of toxin in host's blood spread thru circulatory system
antitoxin
antibodies against a specified toxin-works in the short term
exotoxins...
are very bad. it only takes a small amt to get sick. Caused by Gram positve infections
Membrane disrupting toxins
lyse host cells by making protein channels in plasma
Superantigens
really nasty!! Ex flesh eating streptococcal infections. causes an intense immune response due to release of cytokines from host cells.
Gran negative causes _____toxins
endotoxins. Endotoxins are lipid toxins
Aflatoxins were used by
Sadam hussein
what may cause the most problems for a pt with protozoal infections
the waste products created by the protozoa create the symptoms
algae
red tide-algae will cahnge the grwoth patterns
Portals of exit for bacteria
respiratory tract (coughing and sneezing), GI tract (feces), genitourinary tract (URINE AND VAGINAL SECRETIONS), skin (sebacious glands) blood (biting arthropod and needle/syringe)
SUSCEPTIBILITY
lack of resistance to a disease
innate immunity
nonspecific, from birth, amnsiac 9body does not recall it)
ciliary escalator
microbes trapped in mucuos and transported away from lungs
cilia
finger-like projections w/ mucus that moves really slow
why are tears beneficial?
they are an antibiotic-water laced with lysosomes
chemical factors in 1st line of defense...
fungiostatic fatty acids (sebum) has a low pH, lysozyme-persperation and tears and saliva break paptidoglycan bonds
NK cells
secrete perforin that makes holes in bacteria
Order of most prvalent WBC
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils. never let monkeys eat bananas!
Neutrophils
phagocytic
basophils
histamine
eosinophils
toxic to parasites, phagocytic and makes peroxide
dendritic cells
initiate the adaptive immune response
monocytes
phagocytic as matures, fixed or wandering
lymphocytes
specific immunity