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202 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of the cardiovascular and lymoathic systems?
they both circulate various substance throughout the body and can serve as vehciles for the spread of infection
NAME (2)
both of these systems circulate various substances throughout the body and can serve as vehicles for the spread of the infection
cardiovascular and lymoathic infections
What is the cardiovascular system? (3)
(1)the heart,(2) blood vessels, and (3) blood
What is the heart>
a muscular hollow organ that pumps blood troughtout the body by coordinated nerve impulses and muscular contractions
NAME
consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood
cardiovascular system
NAME
the muscular hollow organ that pumps blood throughout the body by coordinated nerve impluses and muscular contractions
heart
Describe the blood flow
arteries take blood away from the heart and the viens take blood to the heart into the capillary bed
(1)take the blood away from the heart
arteries
(1)take blood to the heart
viens
What are the blood vessels>
are any one of the network of muscular tubes that carry blood
NAME
are any of one of the network of muscular tubes that carry blood
blood vessels
Give (3) ex of blood vessels?
(1)arteries (2)capillaries (3)viens
arteries, capillaries, and veins are all exs of (1)
blood vessels
What is the blood made up of?(3)
(1)plasma (2)red blood cells (3)white blood cells
What is plasma?
transport dissolved nutrients to body cells and carries wastes away from celsl
NAME
transports and dissolved nutrients of muscular tubes that carries wastes away from the cells
plasma
What are red blood cells?
are erythrocytes
NAME
are erythrocytes
red blood cells
NAME
are leukocytes
white blood cells
What are white blood cells?
leukocytes
What are leukocytes?
is the body defense system
NAME
is the body defense system
leukocytes
What are erythrocytes?
carry oxygen
NAME
carry oxygen
erythrocytes
What are the lymphiod organs? (4)
(1)tonsils (2)appendix (3)spleen (4) thymus
NAME
consist of the tonsils, appendix, spleen, and thymus
lymphiod organs
What is the lymphatic system ?
(1)lymph (2)lymph capillaires (3)lymph notes (4) lymphiod organs
NAME
consist of the lymph, lymph capillaires, and lymphiod organs
lympatic system
plasma leaves blood and enters spaces btwn tissue cells is called (1)
interstitial space
What is the interstitral space?
spaces btwn tissue cells by which plasma leaves and enters the cells
What is the interistial fluid?
plasma that enters the inertstial space
NAME
plasma that enters the intersitial space
interistial fluid
What happens to the plasma iwhen it is leaving the intersital ?
is taken up by the lymph cappilaries and becomes lymph
As the plasma or lympth moves into the lymph capilaries, what can happen?
the plasma can pick up microbes and their products
What are lympth nodes?
are macrophages that help clear the lympth of microbes
NAME
are macrophages that help clear the lympth of microbes
lympth nodes
What happens to the plasma when it becomes lympth ?
the lympth returns to the heart passing at least through one lymth node and all the lymth is eventually returned to the heart
What is septicemia?
uncontrolled proliferation of microbes in the blood
NAME
uncontrolled proliferation of microbes in the blood
speticemia
What is lypmhangitis?
chills and fever inflamed lymph vessels
NAME
chills and fever inflamed lymph vessels
lypmhangitis
red streaks under the skin indicate (1)
blood poisioning
What indicates blood poisning?
red streaks under the skin
What is sepsis?
bacteria growing in the blood resulting from septicemia
NAME
bacteria in the blood resulting from speticemia
sepsis
What is sepsis usally caused by?
gram - rods from either an injury in the hosptial or in the hospital from a cathter or feeding tube
NAME
gram - rods from either an injury in the hosptial or in the hospital from either a catheter or feeding tube
spesis
What is septic shock?
when as the bacteria die, endotoxins are releases and blood pressure drops
NAME
is when bacteria die, and endotoxins are released and the blood pressure drops
septic shock
When dealing with septic shock and antibiotics, what is the outcome?
antibiotics worsen the condition and mortailty rate is 50%
What is GBS?
group B strep
What is GBS caused by?
streptococcous agalactiae
NAME
is caused by streptococcous agalactiae
GBS
NAME
is the leading cause of neonatal sepis and meningitis
GBS
GBS is the leading cause of (1) and (2)
neonatal sepis and mengtisitis in the united states and europe
NAME
has a 50-30 mortalitly rate and 30 % of those that survie have CNS damage
GBS
Who should be tested for GBS?
all women btwn 35 to 37 weeks of pregrancy
How is GBS transimted?
to the baby before and after the birth
NAME
symtoms include fever, respiratry diseases, and lethargy appear w in a few days of birth at early onset and "later onset" meningitis was present
GBS
What are the symtopoms for GBS?
symtoms include fever, respiratry diseases, and lethargy appear w in a few days of birth at early onset and "later onset" meningitis was present
If pregant women are found w GBS, they should be (1)
placed on antibiotics right away
Where in a very few cases can GBS be found?
(1)lower intestine, (2)vaginal flora
Is GBS sexually transmitted?
no
What is the endocarditis ?
endocardium that lines the heart muscles and covers the heart valves
NAME
inflammation of the endocardium
endocarditis
HOW do people get Subacute bacterial endocarditis?
when bacteria enters the bloodstream from other sites such as tooth extractions, and tonsillectomies because the heart vavles are abnormal and the bacteria get entrapped in blood clots and the clot can break off and block blood vessels
NAME
when bacteria enters the bloodstream from other sites such as tooth extractions, and tonsillectomies because the heart vavles are abnormal and the bacteria get entrapped in blood clots and the clot can break off and block blood vessels
subactute bacterial endocarditis
Why do heat valves usally become abnromal?
Rheumatic fever
What are the symptoms of subacute bacterial nedocarditis?
(1)slow deveolpment (2) fever (3)weakness (4)heat murmur
NAME
has slow development and symtopoms include fever, weakness, and heart murmur
subacute bacterial neocarditis
What causes subacute bacterial nedocarditis? (3)
(1)alphya-hemolytic streptococci (2)staphloycoccus (3)and or enterococci
NAME
is usally caused by alphya-hemolytic steptococci, staphlyococcus, and / or enterococci
subacute bacterial nedocarditis
What is acute bacterial endocarditis?
infection of normal and abnormal heart valves
NAME
infection of normal and abnormal heat vavles
acute bacterial endocarditis
NAME
is caused by staphlococcus aureus
acute bacterial endocarditis
What causes acute bacterial endocarditis
staphlyococcus aureus
What happens in one gets acute bacterial endocarditis?
fatal within days if not treated
What is rheumatic fever?
an autoimmune complication causing the inflammation of the heat valve bc of untreated strep throat primarily children and tenneagers
NAME
is an autoimmune complication followed by strep throat primarily in children and teenagers
rhematic fever
What happens in rheumatic fever?
antibodies to strep cross react w heart protiens damaging the valves and reinfection w strep renews the immune attack
NAME
antibodies to strep cross react w heart protiens damaging the valves and reinfection w strep renews the immune attack
rheumatic fever
What causes rheymatic fever?
asociated w a strain of streptococcus pyogenes containing M proetien serotype
NAME
is caused by streptococcus pyogenes containing M protien serotype and this type of bacteria one the decline in the USA
rheymatic fever
What are systemic diseases?
diseases caused by bites and scratches
NAME
are diseases caused by bites and scractches
systemic diseases
Dog bites have a high rate of infection when (1)
not cleaned properly
Domestic aniamals can harbor (1) which can cause severe pain, swelling, pneumonia, speticemia, and death
Pasteurella multocida
What can pasturella multocida do? and where is it found?
domestica animals when bite people can caue severe pain, swelling, pneumonia, speticemia, pneumonia, and death
T or F
human bites are prone to bacterial infection
true
What causes cat-scratch ?
Bartonella henselae
NAME
can cause cat-scratch disease
bartonella henselae
How can cat-scrach disase be transimted?
when bacteria from cats saliva is deposited on fur and person pets cat and then rubs their own eyes
NAME
can be transmitted when bacteria from cat's salivia is deposoited on fur and then person pats cat on its own and then rubs their eyes resulting in conjunctivitis
cat-scratch disease
NAME
scratch or bite produces a papule at site 3-10 days, after intial contact swelling of lympth notes, sickness, and fever follow, usally the infection on its own but in severe cases anitbitoics are needed
cat-scratch disease
What are the sypmtoms of cat-scratch disease?
(1)bites or scratch produce a papule (2)after initial contact, swelling of lymph notes, sickness, and fever follow (3) usally the body will fight the infection on its own, but in severe cases antibiotics are needed
What causes the plague?
yersinia pestis
NAME
is caused by yersinia pestis
the plague
How is the plague transmited by?
flea although vector is not always needed
Why do infected fleas feed aggressively?
bc growth of bacteria block the digestive tract and the blood ingested is quickly and regurgiated
NAME
infected fleas feed agressvely bc growth of bacteria block the digestive tract and the blood ingested is quickly regurgiated
plague
Where is the plage found to be?
SW USA cases from cats, and urban tree squarils
What does the bacteria (if plague) do when it enters the bloodstream?
grow in the blood and lympth and the pathogen grows inside phagocytic cells
NAME
bacteria of this desease grows in the blood and lympth and the pathogen grows inside the phagocytic cells
plague
For the plague name the differ type of plagues? (3)
(1)bubonic plague (2)septicemic plague (3)pneumonic plage
T or F
for the plague to be transmitted the vector is always needed
false
What do the different types of plague depend on?
the symptoms
What is the bubonic plague? (2)
swelling of lymoth nodes, buboes, in groin or neck (2) prognoisis good if treated but untreated 75% will die
NAME
swelling of the lympth nodes, buboes, in groin or neck, and prognois is good but if untreated 75% will die
bubonic plague
What is the septicemic plague? (3)
(1)bacterium moves from the nodes to the blood (2) virulence factures cause darkening of skin (3)100% death rate if untreated
What is pneumonic plague?
(1)bacterium moves from the lungs (2) if not treated w/in about 2 weeks, at the onset of fever, people will die w/in 3 days (3)mortailty rate near 100% (4) is contagious through air droplets
NAME
bacterium moves from the nodes to the blood and virulence factors cause darkening of skin. also if not treated there is a 100% death rate
septicemic plague
NAME
bacterium moves to the lungs, if not treated w/in about 2 weeks, at the onset of fever, people will die w/in 3 days. Mortailty rate near 100%. also, is contagious through air droplets
pnsumonic plague
What microbe causes lyme disease?
Borella burgdorfero
NAME
is caused by borella burgddorfero
lyme disease
What is the vector for lyme disease?
deer tick
NAME
the vector is deer tick
lyme disease
NAME
the greatest threat is in areas where there is high mouse and deer pop such as in NE US during the summer and fall
lyme disease
WHen is threat for lyme disease the greatest?
areas where there are high concentrations of mouse and deer such as in the NE US during the summer and fall
What are the early syptoms of lyme disease?
(1)bull eyes rash and flu like symptoms (2)nonfatal but often causes a syndrome that mimics the neurmasucalar and rheumatid conditions (3)the heart may be affected as well
NAME
early symptoms include bull eyes rash and flu like syptoms
lyme disease
NAME
when found early, it is nonfatal but often causes a syndrome that mimics neuromuscualar and rheumatid conditions and affects may affect the heart as well
lyme disease
is there a vaccine for lyme disease
yes
What is used to treat lyme disease if it is found early?(2)
(1)tetracycline (2)amoxicillin
What causes typhis?
rickettsias
NAME
is caused by rickettsias
typhis
What is rickettsias?
bacteria that are oligate intracellular parastites that can cause typhis
NAME
are bacteria that are oligate intracellular parasites that can cause typhis
rickettsias
NAME
most alternate between a mammalian host and a blood sucking antrhpod
rickettsis
What is typhus?
an infection of mostly the epithealia cells of the vascular system resulting in blockage and rupture of small blood vessels cuasing a rash
NAME
is an infection of mostly the epithealia cells of the vascualar system resulting in blockage and rupture of the small blood vessels causing a rash
typhus
What is the us strain of typhus?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Tick-born typhus is also called (1)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
(1) is also called rocky mountain spotted fever
Tick-born typhus
What mircorbe causes rocky Mountain spotted fever?
rickettsia ricketsii
NAME
is caused by rickettsia ricketsii
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
Where is Rocky Mountain Spotted fever found the most?
SE US and easter seaboard
NAME
found mostly in the SE US and eastern seaboard and the vector is dog ticks
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
What are the symptoms for Rocky Mountain fever? (3)
(1)mild to fatal (2)starts w flu, then spotted rash then affects the CNS (3)rash looks like measles execpt that its on the soles and palms
NAME
symptoms are mild to fatal. It starts out with Flu then spotted rash then affects the CNS
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
NAME
rash looks like measeles except that it is on the soles and palms
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
How can rocky mountain spotted fever be preveneted (2)
(1)protective clothing (2)insect repellent w deet
What causes infectious mononucleosis?
Epstein Barr virus (HHV -4)
NAME
is caused by Epstein Barr virus
infectious mononucleosis
What are the symtpoms of Infectious mononucleosis?
(1)fever, swollen lympth nodes in the neck and general weakness (2)rare but death associate w rapture of the spleen during vigrious acitivty (3)recovery time is a few weak and immunity is permanent
NAME
symptoms include fever, swollen lymoth nodes in the neck and general weakness. Rare but in some cases, death is associated w the the rapture of the spleen and surviers have permanent immunity
infectious mononucleosis
For infectious mononucleosis in develoloping countires, it is usally (1) for childeren before the age of 4
asyptomatic
In what group of people is there a high incidence of infectious mononucleosis?
(1)college students * (2)middle aged adults
NAME
there is a high indicnce amoung collge students
infectious mononucleosis
How is infectious mononucleosis transmitted?
salvia
NAME
is transmitted by saliva
infectious mononucleosis
For infectious mononucleosis, symtoms are associtated w (1)
B cell proliferation and the immune respoonse
For infectious mononucleosis, what does mononucleosis refer to?
the production of lymphocytes w unusaual lobbed nuclei
Give three examples of some emerging hemorrhagic fevers?
(1)Ebola (2)Marbug (3)Lassa
NAME
Ebola, Lassa, and Marbug are also ex(s) of (1)
emerging hemorrhagic fevers
(1), (2), (3) are probally zoonatic diseases but are assocaited w transmission by contanct with blood from human to human
(1)Ebola (2)Lassa (3)Marbug
What is hatavirus pulmonary syndrome?
is hermorrhagic fever w renal syndrome by which is fatal bc the lungs fill up w fluids
NAME
is hermorrhagic fever w renal syndrome
hatavirus pulmonary syndrome
NAME
is fatal bc the lungs fill up w fluids
hantavirus plumanary syndrome
NAME
is transmitted by inhalation of hantavirus in dried urine from infected rodents
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
How is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome transmitted?
by inhalation of hanatvirus in the dried urine from infected rodents
What two exs of protozoan disease caused affected the lympathic system and the cardivovascular system?
(1)toxoplasmosis (2)Plasmodium
What microbe is toxoplasmoisis caused by?
Toxoplasma gondii
NAME
is caused by toxoplasma gondii
toxoplasmosis
What is toxoplasma gondii?
is a obligate parasite that up to 40% of the pop tested + for anittoxoplasma antibodies
What are the syptoms of toxoplasmosis?
asyptomatic or symptoms are mild w sore throat, lympth node enlargment and low grade fever
NAME
asyptomatic or symtoms are mild w sore throat, lymth node enlargement, and low grade fever
toxoplasmosis
NAME
causes Malaria
plamsodium
NAME
is caused by plasmodium
Malaria
What causes Malaria?
plasmodium
What are the 4 prtozoan species responsbile for Malaria? (4)
(1)Plasmodium falciparum (2) plasmodium vivaz (3) plasmodium ovale (4)Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivaz , plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, all can cause (1)
Malaria
What is the vector for malaria?
78 species of the female Anopheles mosquito
NAME
vectored by 78 species of female anaphles mosquito
Malaria
Where are cases of Malaria found? (2)
resitried to around the equator bc of control of mosquitos in temperate areas(2)Africa
Where are most cases of Malaria found?
Africa
Why is there an increase in the cases of Malaria in the US?
bc of travel and immigration
Who are the most frquent victims of malaria?
chidlern and young adults
NAME
the most frequent victims are childern and adults
malaria
NAME
most cases are in africa and control of mosqutitoes in temperate areas has resticted it to the equator
Malaria
What is the life cycle of Malaria (aka Plasmodium species)
(1)asexual stage-human and sexual stage is mosquito (2)the parasite infects RBC's (3)syptoms (4)treated w quinine
For malaria, what is the asexual stage?
humans
For Malaria, what is the sexual stage?
mosqutios
What is used to treat Malaria?
Quinine
NAME
the patient is givenn Quinine. what do they most likely have?
Malaria
NAME
Quinine is used to treat the disease
Malaria
What are the symptoms of Malaria?
(1)violent fever/chill cycles capable of breaking the bones (2)enlargement of the liver, spleen and anemia
NAME
syptoms include violent fever/chill cycles capable of breaking the bones. enlargement of the liver, spleen, and anemia
Malaria
How can toxoplasmosis be transfere to the babay?
by th tranfer of trophpziotes across the placenta
What happens to the fetus if it contracts Toxoplasmosis
in a AIDs or in the 1st or 2nd trimsester?
brain lesions which lead to severe brain damage or vision probelms and (2)fatal disruptions of the heart amd lungs
If the fetus gets (1) during the (2) or has (3), the fetus will have severe brain damage or vision problems. In additon to fatal disruptions of the heart and lungs
(1)Toxoplasmosis (2) 1st or 2nd ttrimsester (3)AIDS
How does does one get Toxoplasmosis? (2)
(1)raw or uncooked meat such as raw pork or raw lamb (2)200 species of birds and mammals esp cats
What is the main reservoir for toxoplasmosis?
the feline family
NAME
the main reservoir is the feline family but can aslo get from uncooked or raw meat, 200 species of birds and mammals
toxoplasmosis
How do humans contract toxplammosis from cats? (3)
(1)contact w oocysts on the cat (2)inhaling contamointed air and dust (3)direct contact w cat feces
How do carnviores get infected w toxoplamsmois (passing it on to humans)?
when they eat /graze in moist soil in which oocysts survive
Give a ex of some ethinic dishes that can cause Toxoplasmosis? (2)
(1)German heckpeter (raw pork) (2)kibbe (Middle eastern dish of raw lamb)
cooking or freeezing meat at 20 C will usally kill the bacteria that causes (1)
toxoplasmosis
How can one prevent toxoplasmosis?
by cooking and/or freezing meat
What is sepis?
bacteria growing in the blood
NAME
bacteria growing in the blood
Sepis
What does endocarditis mean?
inflammation of the endocardium
NAME
inflammation of the endocardium
endcarditis