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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the name of the process where bacteria are used to clean up human messes.
what is an example of the use of biotechnology using microrganisms
production of human insulin
what depends on the realtive velocity that light passes through a material
refractive index
what is the most common method of microscopy and does not allow clear recognition of internal structures?
brightfield microscopy
what has to be done to cells in order to see them with bright field?
stain them which kills them
which kind of microscopy is usefull because it does not kill the microrganism
phase contrast p58
____ is the name for a man made dye that flouresces a certain color and is put on cell.
_____ is the name given to the technique where flourescent antibodies are used to label cells
In _____ eceltron micrography electrons are passed through a stained cross section of a micro o
what color are gram neg cells and what chemical do they contain
pink/ red and they contain safranin
In Gram staining what do you do after you add crystal violet to cell
you add Iodine mordent to intensify stain
_____ is the cell strucutre that increases the surface area to volume ratio and is found mostly in gram __ cells.
mesomere/ gram +
what structure is used for buyoncy
gas vacuole
what is the name of storage center in cell?
inclusion center
what are the two layers of gram + cell
cell membrane+ peptidoglycan (that is thicker than gram -).
what transport system is driven by the proton motive force
simple transport
what type of transport of material accross membrane is driven by the addition of a phosphate group to substance after it crosses membrane
group translocation
what system of membrane transport involves periplasmic protein binding and the use of ATP
the ABC system
in the simple transport system what is the name for the protein where a substrate only goes through membrane in one direction
in simple transport what is the name for the protein where two stubstrates enter cell together
In the phosphoenoltransferace subdivision of group translocation what part of the complex is the variable region that changes depending on sugas?
the enzyme two region p 73
what is function of slime later
to protect cell, help cell adhere to surfaces, and make cell unrecognizable to white blood cells.
how many cells can a spore form and what type of bacteria do this +/-?
one and only some gram + do this
what kind of linkage is in between the glyerol and fatty acids in archae and eubacteria
ether / ester
what are the subunites of prok / eukaryote ribozyems
prok.- 30S, 50S = 70S
euk. - 40S, 60S= 80S
what type of linkage joins the subunits in eu and arache bacteria
Beta(1,4) in eubact.
Beta(1,3)in achae bact.
what is different about amino acid side chain in gram +/- bact.
gram + have interbridge that makes peptidogylcan thicker. ; 76
what is embedded in peptiodgylcan layer of gram + bact that is not in gram -
lipoteichoic acid and teichoic acid
does lipoteichoic or teichoic acid anchor peptidoglycan to cell membrane
lipoteichoic acid
what makes up bacteria cell wall
periplasmic space with peptiodglycan immersed and outer membrane
what is structure on the outside of gram neg outer membrane called that consists of lipid and polysaccharide
Lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS)
what part of the LPS in gram neg bact. is variable and what is highly conserved
the O-specific region / the core polysaccharide and lipid A region
what structure embedded in LPS allows small hydrophobic molecules to pass`
porin molecule
what region of gram neg bacteria do our immune cells notice
the variable O-polysaccharide
what protein is flagella made of
what is difference in flagella in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
prokaryotes- flagella rotates, proton motive force (PMF) is power source

eukaryotes- flagella whips, ATP is energy source
what term describes bacteria that have a) flagella all around b) one flagella
a) peritrichous b) monotrichous (polar)
can gram + or - cells form endospores
for ribozomes what does the S stand for and what does it represent
Svedburg and reflects weight, shape and mass
what is the overall charge on surface of gram positive
negative because of techoic acid
what is the procedure for testing for spores?
use malacite green as primary stain, boil, add safranin 2nd stain, wash. spores will be green
what region of the LPS can endotoxin tneter
Lipid A region
can gram + or - bacteria change their O-polyscharide regions so that its harder for immune cells to target them
in prokaryotes does the filament whip or rotate
what is the energy source of flagella in prokaryotes
Proton motive force
what is the key enzyme in the preparatory stage of glycolysis
what is the name of the enzyme that turns glucose into glucose 6-phosphate
hexokinase (phosphotransferase system)
how many ATP generated in TCA per one pyruvate
15 ATP
what do inhibitors do to electron transport chain and what are some examples
they bind to complexes and prevent H+ gradient from forming ex- cyanide, azide, CO
what group of agents can uncouple F0 and F1 and ATP synthase in ETS so that instead of ATP being produces only heat is made and give an ex.
uncouples- ex: DNP (di nitro phenol).
in TCA what two compounds can be made into a.a
alpha-ketoglutarate and oxalacetate
what part of bacterial cell wall formation does penicllin disrupt
what part of penicillin do penicillin Resistant bacteria attack
the Beta lactam ring
_____ is a way of using a grid system to count up the number of cells
what method of plating do you use to get viable cell count
the serial dillution
what is name of tool used to measure how much light passes through a certain medium
a spectrophotometer
what type of bacteria love to grow at very cold temps
_____ aerobic bacteria can grow in both O2 and anerobic conditions but prefer aerobic
facultative aerobs
_____ bacteria perfer to grow just below otic zone in test tube because they like low [O2].