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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans
-gram neg
-found w/ actinomyces
-Facultative anaerobe
-bite wound/opportunistic Infections
-tetracycline,chloramphenicol, penicillin
Eikenella corrodens
-Gram Neg
-normal flora (respiratory tract)
-opportunistic path - immunocomp.
-assoc w. Human bite infect.
Fist fights, oral trauma (dental
-pit formation on blood plates
=smells like bleach
-Facultative anaerobe
-Host Damage
-perio disease
*Resistant to lots of others!!
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
-gram neg
-moist env., 42oC>>grow anywhere
-use most org. compounds
-opportunistic path. (burn pat.)
>>nosocomial infec.
-Host Damage = Endotoxin
Bordetella - In general
-Relationship to O2?
-How many infectious species?
-Name stages
-Gram neg
-Infections = B. pertusis, B. parapertusis

-need blood & nicotinamide
-close contact susceptible

-droplet resp tract secretion
catarral stage
-7-10d incubation
-develop cough
paroxysmal stage
-2 weeks post exposure
-whoop cough (paroxysms)
-less transmisscible
Convalescent stage
-2-4 weeks
-assoc w. 2o infecN
>pneumon, enceph., seizur.

-PERTUSIS TOXIN! (adhesion and AB toxin) Gi, ncontrolled cAMP prod.
-Lethal toxin—local tissue damage
B. pertusis
--Relationship to O2?
-What need to grow?
-Gram neg
-need blood and nicotinomide to grow.
-only in humans—good candidate for vacc.
B. parapertusis

-Relationship to O2?
-What need to grow?
-Gram neg

Host Damage:
-only adhere to ciliated epithelial cells
Haemophilus influenzae

-major cause for?
-gram neg

-Aerobic, facultative anaerobe

*******major cause meningitis

*******need Heat-stable X-factor (hematin, hemin)
*******Heat-labile V-factor (NAD, NADP)

*******Capsules(A-F) (B most virulent)
Haemophilus ducreyi

-How tell from other disease?
-Gram neg

******chancroid (soft chancre) Africa, Asia

******Siphillus - Cancer hard and not sore.
Spirochetes (In General)
-Kind of flagella
-some lack what?
-Gram neg

-corkscrew motion


-coiled ultrastructure, narrow

-some lack LPS
Treponema pallidum
-What kind of major disease?
-How Transmit?
-Name the four stages
-Larger incidence in who?
-Lack this host dammaging thing?
-Immunological test?
- Gram neg


******Primary stage – chancres
-penetrN of mucosa, tears
-highly infectious
******Secondary – rash ”pox”
-flu-like, relapse a lot
Latency stage – no manifestations
******Tertiary –organ destrucN
-20-30 yrs after
-neurological, cardiac complicaN
Treponema pertenue
-Gram neg

-AKA: Yaws

-non sexual
-endemic: from flies (africa)

-painless papules=enlarge & ulcerate
Treponema denticola and Treponema socranskii
-gram neg

-normal flora (marg. Gingiva)

--periodisease, calculus
-peptidases, proteases
Vincent’s angina
-Gram Neg

-Trench mouth

--oral infecN, mixed F.necrophorum, T.vincentii

-type of dna
-Gram neg


-Lyme disease and relapsing fever
Lyme disease

-Borrelia. Burgdoferi, B. garnii, B. afzelii

-gram neg


-Tick: 48hr

-Symptomes: flu, late arthritus

-Diagnosis: C6 Peptide test

-doxycicline (early)
-IV rocephin (late)
Relapsing fever
-B. nermsii, B. turicatae, B. parkeri

-gram neg


-Tick: min

-high fever, subside, relapse
Leptospira interrogans

-disease name?
-gram neg


-Weil’s disease


-urine: contaminate water

-people die of fever

-weil’s: serious form of infection
-fatal: systemic infection

-90% never diagnosed

-Specificly find where?

-What unique about membrane?
-gram neg


-Only gram neg with no outer membrane and no muramic acid

***********energy parasites, obligate intracellular

-most common STD

-Elementary body & reticulate body (infect new cells)

-Tx: tetracycl, doxyc., azithrmyc
Chlamydia trachomatis

-occure with what


-where disease take place?

-describe where found cellularly?
-gram neg


*******Blindness (clam shell glasses)

-STD: lymphogranuloma venerum

-Often occur with Niceria Gonherea and can't tell difference without tests.

-Can not be cultured on nonliving media
-SALPINGITIS (fallopiantube), urethritis, cervicitis... infertility
Chlamydia pneumoniae

-Find in what population?
-gram neg


-50% of humans, seropositive

-Transmission: aerosol

-atypical pneumonia in young adults b/c unlike Streptoccus pneumonia, there no phlem in lungs.
Chlamydia psittaci

-gram neg


-bird fever, parrot fever

-TransmN: inhale dried bird feces

-Very virulent, less than 10 d

-two groups

-O2 use?

-where can they grow?
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Rods, stain pink
-grow in simple media

-Lac(+): lactose fermenter, β-galactosidase... red:McConkey

-Lac(-):non-lactose fermenter
Escherichia coli - ETEC
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac +

ETEC –toxigenic... enterotoxin (plasmids)

-Traveller’s diarrhea, Montezuma’s R

-INFANT Diarrhea = fatal (dehydraN)

-heat labile toxin (heat S)
-same as cholera
-heat stable toxin (heat R)
Escherichia coli - EPEC
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac +

-pathogenic... major cause of infant Diarrhea

-NO TOXINS!, INTIMIN (tight adhesin)

-Pilus, adhesin factor
Escherichia coli - EHEC
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac +


-Carrier : Cows

-SHIGATOXIN (destroy GI epithel)

-INTIMIN, Acid resistance
Escherichia coli - EIEC
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac +

--Enteroinvasive... Dysentary (invaN of epithelil cells)

-INVASION factor (cell-cell spread)
Escherichia coli - EaggEC
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac +


-pediatric diarrhea
Escherichia coli - UPEC-UTI
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-uropathogenic, Pfimbriae (adhes)
Klebsiella pneumoniae

-Who target?
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac +

-opportunistic pathogen


-burn wound infection

-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac Neg

-extremely MOTILE

-Normal flora of chickens (carrier)

-fecal contamination of poultry prod


-enteric fever
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac Neg

-extremely MOTILE

Carrier: Human
-ingesN of human fecal material
(improper sanitaN)

-invade mucosal barrier ******(diarrhea), enter bloodstream (bacterimia), phag by macrophag.
-surv & mult in liver, spleen
-release to bloodstream from gall blad to gut
-Gram neg

-Faculative anaerobe

-Lac Neg

-non-motil - little rockets
*****bac dysentary

-SHIGGA TOXIN>kill epith cells
-Gram neg
-Faculative anaerobe
-Lac Neg

1)sylvatic plague-rat, fleas, prarriedog

2)urban plague-bubonic plague (dead end host), pneumonic plague (pass-humanhuman)
-These two have abdominal pain
-Gram neg

-Spread fecal oral rout
-Rice water stool

-pilin adherance
-cholera toxin, ADP-ribosyltransferase cAMP
--fluid loss

-Oral fluid replacement
Campylobacter jejuni
-Gram Neg
-Non-enteric Food borne

-curved, spiral rods
-contaminated food

-1st/2nd most common for diarrhea
-(stomach inflammation, interstitial lining
Helicobacter pylori
-Gram Neg
-Non-enteric Food borne

--curved/spiral rods
-human (fecal-oral)

-peptic ulcers, cancer! (LYMPHOMAS)





-form one of two types of shapes?

-Hemolytic activity (3 kinds)

-Biochem test?
-Gram +


-Non-spore forming

-Chains or pairs

-Catalase (-), do not decompose hydrogen peroxide (O2 and H2O)

-Facultative anaerobes

-partial lysis of RBC=green zone

-complete hemolysis=clear zone

-no hemolysis

-Biochem test
-optochin=S (pneumoniae)
Streptococci pyogenes



-Main reservoir


-Biochem test

Main reservoir = HUMANS
-TransmN= RESPIRATORY, direct contact w/ broken skin/mucosa

-No catalase

-Group A

-bacterial pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media

skin infecN:

-toxic shock synd

Post infect sequelae
-rheumatic fever (migrate, heart joints—endocarditis)

Biochem Test:
-antigen detecN (rapid strep test)=not that sensitive

Tx & prev
-penicillin (prev sequelae)
Streptococci pneumoniae



-Who target?

-Virulence factor?

-Gram pos
-Catalase neg
-Faculative anaerobe

- Lancet Shape diplococci

--young children, elderly &immunocomp


-polysacc capsule!

Tx & prevenN
-penicillin (some resistant)
-POLYVALENT VACC (adults), for most capsular types
Viridans Streptococci

S. mutans

-Where find?

-oral cavity

-responsible for smooth surface caries

-can lead to endocarditis in heart valve problems.
Staphylococci (In General)


-Name the two we need to know?
-4 tests to differentiate?\

-Ab resistance?
-S. aureus & S. epidermidis

-Gram pos
-Grape cluster colony
-Catalase POS

coagulase activity:
-traditional marker (identify s.aureus… fibrinogen-fibrin)

Fermentation of mannitol (turn media yello)

Sensitiv to antibiotic= NOVOBIOCIN

Cell wall components—Techoic acid—adherence to mucosal surfaces

Antimirob Resistance
-Penicillin-penicillinase, β-lactamase
-Methicillin-pen=R, producN of low-affinity
penicillin binding protein
-vancomycin-(until recently, all strains
were=S)—S.aureus (D-ala, D-ala, changed to D-ala-D-lac (ser))
Staphyloccus aureus

-Sensitiv to antibiotic?
-Cell wall components?

-Most common of what kind of infection?

-What symptom and how fast?

-Gram pos

-Coagulase +

-Fermentation of mannitol (turn media yello)

-Sensitiv to antibiotic= NOVOBIOCIN sensitive

-Cell wall components—Techoic acid—adherence to mucosal surfaces

-Most common cause of nosocomial infecN

-Food poisoning from toxin, not infection (1-8hrs). Toxic shock give Scarlet fever.

Staphyloccus epidermidis

-Sensitiv to antibiotic?
-Cell wall components?

-how infect

-Gram pos

-Coagulase neg
-Fermentation- Mannitol neg
-Sensitiv to antibiotic- Novobiocin sensitive
-Cell wall components- Glycerol

-infect via blood contamination (common for implants?

-Low virulence

-supplements needed
-Fermentative metab
-destributed in human?
-What do resting cells do?
-Gram pos
-anaerobic, aerotolerant

-Rods (bacilli), chains, coccobacilli (football)

-need supplements (nicotine, pantothetic acid)


Fermentative metab
1)homolactic = lactic acid only
2)heterolactic = lactic acid and etc
3)facultative heterofermenters =inducible enzymes (back and

-widely destributed in human body (colon, oropharynx, skin)

-dental caries, deep carious lesion (acidic, anerobic)

“caries marker organism”

ENDOSPORES—resting cell, resistant to dessication

1-B. cereus

2-B. anthracis

-Human dis? acquired from?
-Two kinds of human disease?
-Tx & control
-Gram pos

-Rods, koch postulate
-single, paired



-Human distibuiton, acquired accidentally
-usu w/ herbivores (soil)
-inoculation cutaneous (95%), inhalation (wohl’s order—spore lungs), ingestion (herbivores)

Tx & control
-penicillin, tetracyc, cipro

Square ended bacillus, central endospore, no bulge

-does it form spores
-Where find?
-gram pos

-spore former


-obligate anaerobic

-soil, water, GI tract, ubiquitous
Clostridium tetani
-main disease
-how affect
-endospore appearance
Gram pos
-tetanus toxin (A-B toxin)
B:bind ganglioside neuronal membrane
A:block resease of inhibitory neurotransmt.

-disrupt neuromuscular junction


-terminal endospore (tennis)

Clostridium perfringens
-main disease
-how affect
-Gram pos

-Gang green

-Toxins are degenerative enzymes. Form gas pockets


-Gram-pos bacilli in stool
Clostridum botulinum
-How affect infants?
-Dammaging factor
-Most common symptom
-gram pos rods

-Spores very heat resistant

-infant botulism – honey w. spores
GI tract colonized
=failure to thrive
=floppy-baby syndrome
-Botulinum Toxin (A-B)
-Food poisoning
-Tx- penicillin
-Prevention- Heat home canned goods
-AKA: C. diptheriae
-How dammage

-Tx & prev.
-Gram pos rod


-Obligate Aerobe

-Exotoxin (A stop protein syn, B allow entry into cell)

-Schick test: measure presence of spec neutralizing antibodies
-intradermal admin
-no rxn=neutralizing antibodies exist = immune
-local edema w. necrosis = no neut antib = susceptible
-(+) schick rxn= identify susc indiv


-It is the only of what kind of bac?

-It the only pathogenic,Gram Neg, diplococci.

-Oxidase Pos

-Aerobic, faculative anaerobic
Neisseriae Meningitidis


-Adhearence to host?



-Damage cause


Tx & control?
-Gram Neg, diplococci
-Oxidase Pos


-Transmission respiratory secretions and lay dorment in carriers

-Adherence via pili

-Fever, rash, stiff neck


-Diagnosis- intracell diplos in PMN

Tx & control
-Penicillin, chloramphen
Neisseria gonorrhaeae


-Adhearence to host?


-Damage cause?


Tx & control?
-Gram Neg, diplococci.

-Oxidase Pos

-Sex transmission

-Pili (rapid variation) adhere to host

-No polysacharide capsule


-Diagnosis- intracell diplos in PMN



-Where find cellularly

-Gram neg short coccobacilli


-free in cytoplasm unlike Chlamydia

-Vector: ticks (hard-shelled)

-Reservoir: rodents, dogs, ticks
Transovarian transmiN
Rickettsia rickettsii




-Gram neg short coccobacilli


Tx & control
-tetracycline chloram
-rocky mountain spotted fever

-clinical manif from replican of bac in endothel cells of small blood vessles =RASH

-fever, chills

Reservoir: rodents, dogs, ticks
Transovarian transmiN 24-48h
Rickettsiae prowezekii



-Where find cellularly




-Gram neg short coccobacilli

-in nucleus

“louse borne”
Vector=body lice feces, squirrel fleas
Resrv= man, flying squirrel
NO Transovarian T
-crowded unsanitary condN (famine, wars, disaster area)
-epidemics, sporadically (SE)

-RAPID ONSET OF high fever, headache, chills, rash (Not on palms or feet), anorexia (from overwhelm bacteremia)

Tx & control
-tetracycline chloram
Rickettsiae typhi



-Where find cellularly




-Gram neg short coccobacilli

-in nucleus

-Vector=rat fleas, cat fleas
-Reserv=rodents, fleas

Tx & control
-tetracycline chloram
coxiella burnetti

-how unique from Chlamydia and Rickettsia

-Unique symptome?
Q fever

-Gram neg short coccobacilli

-Intracellular division, can live outside cell.

-Form endospore


-pneumonia and fever, and no rash
Mycoplasma pneumonia
-No Cell Wall or gram stain\

-lots of cholesterol in membrane

-Smallest living organism

-Shape- star shape, fillamentous,Fried egg appearance

-Number one bronchitis and pneumonia in young adults

-Walking pneumonia- patient does not feel sick

-No cell wall so no penicillin
-tetracycline, erythrom
Mycoplasma hominis
-No Cell Wall or gram stain

-In Cervix

Nocardia is other one
-Gram pos, non-spore forming rods

-not acid fast


--tongue, tonsillar crypts, gingival, dental plaque, normal flora

-sulfer granules
-pleiomorphic coccobacillus
-soil organism
-facultative aerobe

-cause abscess in immunocomp
-lesions in lung

-multiple antibiotics (rifamp & erythromycin)
-non pathogenic soil actinomycete

-produce all clinically useful antibiotics
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-Acid fast


-Global impact
-1/3 of world has TB
-TB leading cause of death in HIV

Tuberculin test:
-skin test (+) = primary tubercle.
-purified prot derivative = injected intradermally PPD skin test
-delayed type response
=prior infection

Infection = No symptoms

-Disease = Have lung symptoms
Mycobacterium leprae
Obligate intracell parasite
-not cultivated on lab media
-propagate in armadillos

Tuberculoid leprosy
-benign not progressive
-few bac in tissue
-(+)lepromin skin test
-nerve damage, many T help cells

Lepromatous leprosy (immunocomprimised patient)
-progressive disease
-nodular skin lesions
-many bac in tissue
-(-) lepromin skin test
-many T suppressor cells
-nerve damage