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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
total genetic info in a bacterial cell; includes nuclear and plasmid DNA
genome
the genetic material in bacteria organized into groups of structural genes that encode for proteins; conatrolled by operator genes regulating expression of genes
operon
basic unit of inheritance; sequence of base nucleotides encoding for a polypeptide/protein
cistron/gene
triplet of nucleotie bases that encode for a specific amino acid
codon
genetic potential of an organism
genome
genetic chareacteristics expressed under specific environmental influences
phenotype
random change in the sequence of nucleotide bases that comprise the gens of a cell
mutation
existing base in a DNA molecule substituted with another base; results in an altered protein product
base-substitutions
base substitution results in a new amino acid substituted for an existing AA in a protein
mis-sense
results when terminatino codons are substituted for codons encoding for AA; act as punctuation mark
nonsense
shift the normal reading frame of the codons in the DNA molecule; result when a base is deleted from DNA or inserted into molecule
frame-shift mutations
back mutations that correct an initial mutation
reversions
fragment the DNA molecule by breaking the phosphate bonds b/w the deoxy-ribnose sugars in nucleotide bases
x-rays, gamma rays
causes thymine dimers; occur when covalent bonds form on adjacent thymine bases
UV light
agents chemically modifying nucleotide bases resulting in base mis-pairings
chemical mutagens
example of a chemical mutagen; remove an AA greoup and modify for covalent bnonding
nitrates
chemical mutagen; add OH group to cytosine
hydroxyl amines
compunds that look like normal nucleotide bases; sub for the normal bases in replication; prevent formation of intact DNA
nucleotide base analogues
used in tratment of herpes viruses
acyclovir
used in treatment of aids
AZT - azidothymine
exchange genetic material
sex
uptake and insertion of naked DNA
transformation
mating and exchange of DNA by mating types
conjugation
DNA is carried by a virus from one cell to another
transduction
transfer nuclear DNA
fertility factors
antibiotic resistance plasmids; encode for enzymes that modify or destroy antibiotics
R factors
encode for col factors or killer proteins that are released by one strain of E coli against another strain
col plasmids
encode for enzymes that degrade aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, important in oil spills
degradative plasmids
insect toxin encoded by plasmid
parasporal proteins
human insuline produced in E coli and S cerevisiae
humulin
rod shaped; nucleic acid surroudned by capsomers, viral structure
helical viruses
viral structue - capside forms an icosahedron or a 20 sided figure, polio virus
polyhedral viruses
attaches to neuraminic acid associated with respiratory cells, enzimes destroy this compound causing cell damage
neuraminidase
bactieral viruses
bacteriophage
lytic cylce steps 7
-recognition and absorption of virus
-penetration
-uncoating
-synthsis of viral nucleic acid
-synthesis of components
-assembly of viron
-release of mature virons
transfer of genetic material by lytic viruses
generalized transduction
lysogenic virus altering the genetic potential of a host cell b/c of carying new genetic info
lysogenic conversion
causes kanker sors of the mouth, induced by hormons, uv light,k stress, some foods
herpes type I
infects nerve cells in the urogenital system, causes genital herpes
herpes type II
causes chicken pox in childen and shingles in a adults
herpes zoster
when some animal =viruses infect cell, they transform the cell in to a cancer or oncogenic cell
transforming or oncogenic viruses
prevents AIDS from maturing
protease inhibitors
first virus shown to cause tumors in animal
Rous sarcoma virus
causes Burkitts lymphoma in african populations and infectous mono in the US
Epstein-Barr virus
naked RNA molecules that cause viral-like symptoms in plants, not in animals
viroids
Kuru
new guinea natives
cuased by prions
wasting disease from damage to the CNS
Scrapie
spongioform encephatlitis in sheep
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
spongiosporm encephalitis in humans; sypmptoms =similar to other forms of the disease