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55 Cards in this Set

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Disease production in infected wounds depends on:
-How __________ an organism?
-How many organisms infect?
-Is the host _____________?
-Nature of the wound (Does it contain _________ ________, if so, it won't heal until removed.)
Virulent
Immunocompetent
Foreign material
An __________ wound is an incision produced by a knife or other sharp object.
Incised
A ___________ wound is from penetration of a sharp object.
Puncture
A ___________ wound is a laceration when tissue is torn.
Laceration
A ___________ wound is a contusion caused by a blow, so you're dealing with ___________ tissue.
Contused
Crushed
Wound ___________ are localized collection of pus surrounded by _______ ________.
Abscesses
Body tissue
Abscess formation helps to __________ __________.
Localize infection
To effect cure, the abscess must rupture to a body surface or be ___________ __________.
Surgically drained.
Common bacterial wound infections include:
1. Staphylococcal wound infections
2. Group A ___________ wound infections
3. ____________ _____________ infections.
Streptococcal
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
_____________ are the leading cause of wound infections. There are more than ____ strains, the two most common in humans are:
Staphylococci
30
1. S. aureus
2. S. epi
S. aureus causes virulence due to the production of ___________ products.
Extracellular
___________ causes blood clotting to evade phagocytosis.
Coagulase
___________ factor aids in bacterial wound colonization.
Clumping
___________ A hide bacteria from phagocytic cells.
Protein
________-_______ produces hold in host cell membrane.
Alpha-toxin
Systemic spread of virulence factors can lead to ___________ in other tissues. Commonly the _______ and joints.
Abscesses
Heart
Certain species produce toxins which in the blood act as ____________ and can lead to TSS (__________ _________ ___________)
Superantigen
Toxic Shock syndrome
Prevention of Staph wound infections directed at:
Cleansing wound
Prompt closure
Pre-surgical antistaphylococcus medications
Treatment of Staph wound infections can be hard because many strains develop _____________ to antibiotics and are resistant to _________.
Resistance
Penicillin
Many strains of Staph wound infections are treated anti-beta ____________.
Lactamase
Group A Streptococcal infections are aka _________ __________. The primary pathogen is S. ___________.
Flesh eaters
Pyogenes
True or False:
Group A Strep wound infections are mostly easily treated with little antibiotic resistance.
True
More severe infections of Group A Strep are called __________. Include ________, meningitis, puerperal (__________ fever), ____________ _________ (flesh eating disease) and Streptococcal ________ __________.
Invasive
Pneumonia
Childbirth
Necrotizing fasciitis
Toxic shock
Symptoms of Group A Strep infections:
Acute pain at the site
Swelling
Fever and confusion
Shock and death without treatment
___________ _________ is destroyed in necrotizing fasciitis. ________ tissue is also destroyed when bacteria penetrates muscle tissue.
Subcutaneous fascia
Muscle
Organisms multiply and produce _________ products that enter ___________ and can cause shock.
Toxic
Bloodstream
Cases of Group A Strep are generally __________. Small epidemics have occured, like in San Fran in 1996.
Sporadic
There were ~9,000 cases of S. ____________ in 2002 resulting in 1080 deaths (~12%). 135 of those were from necrotizing fasciitis.
Pyogenes
There is no proven prevention, urgent surgery is required due to _________ of toxic spread and amputation is sometimes required.
Rapidity
__________ is still an effective treatment, but it must be given early and has little to no effect on bacteria in _________ tissue and no effect on toxin.
Penicillin
Necrotic
P. aeruginosa is an ___________ pathogen that is a major cause of __________ infections.
Opportunistic
Nosocomial
Community acquired P.aeru infections:
Eye infections
Infection of foot ________
Rash and external ear infections
Heart ________ infections
Lung _________ that compromise gas exchange
Bones
Valve
Biofilms
Nosocomial P.aeru infections:
_______ infections
_______ infections (most common)
Lung
Burn
Symptoms of P.aeru wound infection:
1. Release pigments that change tissue color to _______.
2. Chills, fever, skin lesions and shock caused by bacterial infection of ___________.
Green
Bloodstream
Overall, the effect of P.aeru is tissue damage, prevention of healing and increased risk of _________ ________.
Septic shock
Some strains produce enzymes and toxins to enhance virulence:
1. ____________ S
2. ___________ A
3. ____________ C
1. Exoenzyme S
2. Toxin A
3. Phosphlipase C (signal transduction molecule that tricks your cells into favoring infection.)
Tetanus is aka _________.
Lockjaw
True or False:
Lockjaw is common in the developed world and rarely is fatal.
False:
Not common in developed world, often fatal
Early symptoms of tetanus:
Restlessness, irritability, difficulty ____________, contraction of jaw muscles, ___________ (particularly in children.)
Swallowing
Convulsions
Late symptoms of tetanus:
Increased muscle ___________ creating more pain
Difficulty breathing
_____________ of stomach contents into lungs
Involvment
Regurgitation
The causative agent of tetanus is ___________ ___________, an anaerobic, Gram _________ bacillus spore former.
Clostridium tetini
Gram negative
The C. tetini bacteria form a toxin called ____________ that is responsible for the pathogenesis.
Tetanospasmin
Toxin is composed of 2 chains
1. Heavy chain binds ___________ on motor neuron
2. Ligher chain taken up through ___________.
Receptors
Endocytosis
Tetanospasmin blocks ___________ of motor neurons, causing ___________.
Inhibition
Paralysis
Muscle contration is _____________, muscles do not relax.
Uncontrolled
______________ is the best prevention of lockjaw.
Immunization
The vaccine for tetanus is inactivated ________________. This is given in combo with diptheria and ___________ vaccine (DTaP)
Tetanospasmin
Pertusis
Treatment of tetanus includes cleaning wound and removing dead tissue, antimicrobial treatment and an Antitoxin, an __________ against ___________ (which neutralizes toxin not attached to nerve cells).
Antibody against tetanospasmin
Gas gangrene is the common term for _________ ___________.
Clostridial myonecrosis
Clostridial myonecrosis is primarily a _________ disease. The spores are found everywhere but rarely lead to this disease.
Wartime
The causative agent of Clostridial myonecrosis is __________. The most common offender is C. _________ which is an encapsulated, gram _______ bacillus.
Clostridium
C. perfrigens
Gram-neg
The two factors that foster development of clostrial myonecrosis are:
1. Prescence of ______ and dead tissue in wound
2. Long delay of treatment
Dirt
The bacteria of Clostridial myonecrosis produces ________ toxin taht attacks the host cell membranes. Other enzymes break down the __________ of dead tissue
Alpha
Macromolecules
C. perfringens are unable to grow in healthy tissue. Only survives well in dead or poorly ___________ tissue.
Oxygenated
Bacteria of Clostridial myonecrosis produces gas through _____________ which accumulates in tissue, contributing to spread.
Fermentation