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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
..........are chemicals approved for usage on food utensils
sanitizers an example for an antiseptic
Alcohol works best if its concentration is
This is an example for an antiviral drug
Lysol is a
This heavy metal is the active ingredient of tincture
Ethylene oxide kills bacteria by inhibiting the
Phenols kill bacteria by inhibiting
This gas is used in hospitals to sterilize expensive, invasive apparatus that are heat sensitive
ethylene oxide
This heavy metal is ued to kill algae in ponds
These chemicals are mainly used as dish washing detergents
cationic detergents
This method is mainly used to sterilize alcoholic beverages
This drug restricts the replication of herpes virus
One of the disadvantages of this method is the accumulation of benzene and URPs due to fat metabolism
ionizing radiation
This heavy metal is used in the treatment of Opthalmia neonatarum
Silver nitrate
An antibotic that inhibit the cell wall synthesis
An antibotic that specifically inhibits DNA synthesis
This pathogen evades the effects of penicillin by changing shape/morphology
Treponema palladium
This active ingredient in cephalosporins known to inhibit cell wall synthesis
Resistance t 2 or more antibiotics with a common mode of action is known as
cross resistance
The main mode of action of rifamicin/rifampicin is to inhibit
Progression or regression of a disease depends on this factor
This endemic disease has now become an epidemic disease in the Midwestern states
West Nile virus infection is an example for
This antibiotic is known to cause anaphylactic shock because of hapten production
AIDS is a typical example for
Contamination of potable water with sewage water can spread this infection
Clostridium tetani a pathogenic bacteria is mainly present in
A treatment that excludes the real drug but includes a sugar pill is known as
This transmission of the disease mainly occurs from parents to off springs
Irradiation of meats mainly results in the accumulation of
Streptomycin inhibits the
Dry heat is mainly used to disinfect
food utensils
Streptomycin is mainly used to treat this infection
Sulfa drugs are analogs of this compound used to make DNA
The main drawbacks of this technique are cumberson and expensive due to high energy costs
dry heat
A typical example for an antimetabolite antibiotic is
In erythromycin-resistant bacteria the antibiotic erythromycin will not bind to
Tetracycline is a known example for
broadspectrum antibiotic
Redman syndrome is caused by the use of this antibiotic
The active ingredient in bleach is this halogen
chlorine used to disinfect potaable water
Formaldehyde inhibits
.....method is used to disinfect milk
........method is used to prepare instant coffee/milk
This is a radioactive isotope used in irratioation process
Bacteria require this compound to make DNA
An antibiotic effective against gram negative bacteria is
A person who has the infectious agent but shows no symptoms of the disease is known as
This epidemiological study is mainly used to evaluate a hypothesis
Universal precautions were formulated to prevent the spread of
nosocomial infections
This gram negative bacteria is a source of nosocomial infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
This gram negative bacteria is associated with burn infections is
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
One of the primary reason for increased nosocomial infections
immunocompromised patients
A public health organization located in Atlanta, GA is
MRSA's can be eradicated by this antibiotic
This public health organization is located in Geneva
Enterococcus is a nosocomial infectious agent resistant to this antibiotic
All sexually transmitted diseases are known as
Rabies is considered as a
zoonotic disease
Triazoles the plasma membrane
This is an antibiotic that acts as an antifungal agent
Clavulanic acid is compound present in this antibiotic
5 desirable attributes of a disinfectant
Easy to make, No odor, no residue, kill a variety of organisms, and long shelf live
List 4 factors that affect the efficancy of a disinfectant
temp, pH, concentration, time
Why is 70% alcohol considered best?
1. At 100%, evaporation is quick
2. Coagualtion of proteins
List 4 modes of action of a disinfectant
proteins, DNA, membranes, fermation
List 3 different methods of pasteurization. Please include the parameters of at least one
Hold method, flash method, and UHT. UHT temp starts at 70 degrees and is brought up to 140 degrees and back down to 70 degrees in 15 sec.
List 2 disadvantages of ionizing radiation
Public pheoba
When would you use a broad spectrum and a narrow spectrum antibiotic. List two examples for each group
Broad spectrum - used when one does not know what is causing the infection - Tetracycline & cephalosporins
Narrow spectrum - used when one knows what is causing the infection - Ciproflaxocin & erythromycin
What is super infection? List 2 organisms that cause it.
These infections are “opportunistic.” It seems that persons have bacterial that are part of the normal functioning of the body. Antimicrobial therapy can “Kill” the bacterial with white hats (our normal, “good-guy” bacteria), providing the Opportunity for other invading organisms to move in. Candida & Clostridium difficile
How do bugs become resistant to penicillin and erythromycin?
Bacteria acquire resistant genes through exchanging genes with other bacteria
List 2 types of "evasion" mechanisms. Please list the bacter that do these acts.
TB hids in phlegm and syphillis evades in antibotics
What is cross resistance? Please explain with names of antibiotics
Cross-resistance arises because the mechanism of resistance to several drugs is the same and arises through the identical genetic mutations. Vancomycin, pencillin, cephalsporins
List 3 ways of limiting antibiotic resistance
1. only use when necessary
2. take the complete coarse
3. Take combination drugs
Explain "antagonistic" reaction with examples
It is the opposite of a synergism. The example would pencillian & tetracycline
How does pandemic infection differ from sporadic infection. List example
Pandemic is an infection like AIDs that is a worldwide infection. Sporadic has no reason for the infection. An example would be West Nile virus
Differentiate epidemic outbreak from endemic infection with examples
Epidemic is something that cause an M&M like the flu in 2004. Endemic is something that does not cause and M&M like mumps or chicken pox
Explain the disease cycle with an example
Bubonic plaque - the disease cycle happens in cycles. It kills several people
Explain the 2 methods of controlling the spread of infectious diseases
Isolation - sick person separated from the healthy population
Quaratine - healthy person was exposed to infectious agent and is separated from the healthy population
List 3 nosocomial infections
Pseudomonas, VRE, E. coli
Mary has an unknown infection and Kate is suffering from bacterial diarrhea. What kind of antibiotics will you recommend?
Mary - BS Kate - NS
List 3 universal precautions
Gloves, masks, and wash hands