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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
..........are chemicals approved for usage on food utensils
sanitizers
....is an example for an antiseptic
neosporin
Alcohol works best if its concentration is
70%
This is an example for an antiviral drug
zovirax
Lysol is a
phenol
This heavy metal is the active ingredient of tincture
mercury
Ethylene oxide kills bacteria by inhibiting the
DNA
Phenols kill bacteria by inhibiting
proteins
This gas is used in hospitals to sterilize expensive, invasive apparatus that are heat sensitive
ethylene oxide
This heavy metal is ued to kill algae in ponds
copper
These chemicals are mainly used as dish washing detergents
cationic detergents
This method is mainly used to sterilize alcoholic beverages
filtration
This drug restricts the replication of herpes virus
Ribavirin
One of the disadvantages of this method is the accumulation of benzene and URPs due to fat metabolism
ionizing radiation
This heavy metal is used in the treatment of Opthalmia neonatarum
Silver nitrate
An antibotic that inhibit the cell wall synthesis
penicillin
An antibotic that specifically inhibits DNA synthesis
ciprofloxacin
This pathogen evades the effects of penicillin by changing shape/morphology
Treponema palladium
This active ingredient in cephalosporins known to inhibit cell wall synthesis
b-lactam
Resistance t 2 or more antibiotics with a common mode of action is known as
cross resistance
The main mode of action of rifamicin/rifampicin is to inhibit
RNA
Progression or regression of a disease depends on this factor
incidence
This endemic disease has now become an epidemic disease in the Midwestern states
Mumps
West Nile virus infection is an example for
sporadic
This antibiotic is known to cause anaphylactic shock because of hapten production
Penicillin
AIDS is a typical example for
pandemic
Contamination of potable water with sewage water can spread this infection
Hepatitis
Clostridium tetani a pathogenic bacteria is mainly present in
soil
A treatment that excludes the real drug but includes a sugar pill is known as
placebo
This transmission of the disease mainly occurs from parents to off springs
vertical
Irradiation of meats mainly results in the accumulation of
URPs
Streptomycin inhibits the
proteins
Dry heat is mainly used to disinfect
food utensils
Streptomycin is mainly used to treat this infection
TB
Sulfa drugs are analogs of this compound used to make DNA
PABA
The main drawbacks of this technique are cumberson and expensive due to high energy costs
dry heat
A typical example for an antimetabolite antibiotic is
sulfa
In erythromycin-resistant bacteria the antibiotic erythromycin will not bind to
ribosome
Tetracycline is a known example for
broadspectrum antibiotic
Redman syndrome is caused by the use of this antibiotic
Rifampicin
The active ingredient in bleach is this halogen
chlorine
.......is used to disinfect potaable water
chlorine
Formaldehyde inhibits
DNA
.....method is used to disinfect milk
pasteurization
........method is used to prepare instant coffee/milk
lyophilization
This is a radioactive isotope used in irratioation process
CO60
Bacteria require this compound to make DNA
PABA
An antibiotic effective against gram negative bacteria is
Cipro
A person who has the infectious agent but shows no symptoms of the disease is known as
carrier
This epidemiological study is mainly used to evaluate a hypothesis
experimental
Universal precautions were formulated to prevent the spread of
nosocomial infections
This gram negative bacteria is a source of nosocomial infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
This gram negative bacteria is associated with burn infections is
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
One of the primary reason for increased nosocomial infections
immunocompromised patients
A public health organization located in Atlanta, GA is
CDC
MRSA's can be eradicated by this antibiotic
Vancomycin
This public health organization is located in Geneva
WHO
Enterococcus is a nosocomial infectious agent resistant to this antibiotic
vancomycin
All sexually transmitted diseases are known as
notifiable
Rabies is considered as a
zoonotic disease
Triazoles inhibit......in the plasma membrane
Sterols
This is an antibiotic that acts as an antifungal agent
amphotericin
Clavulanic acid is compound present in this antibiotic
augmentin
5 desirable attributes of a disinfectant
Easy to make, No odor, no residue, kill a variety of organisms, and long shelf live
List 4 factors that affect the efficancy of a disinfectant
temp, pH, concentration, time
Why is 70% alcohol considered best?
1. At 100%, evaporation is quick
2. Coagualtion of proteins
List 4 modes of action of a disinfectant
proteins, DNA, membranes, fermation
List 3 different methods of pasteurization. Please include the parameters of at least one
Hold method, flash method, and UHT. UHT temp starts at 70 degrees and is brought up to 140 degrees and back down to 70 degrees in 15 sec.
List 2 disadvantages of ionizing radiation
Public pheoba
URPs
When would you use a broad spectrum and a narrow spectrum antibiotic. List two examples for each group
Broad spectrum - used when one does not know what is causing the infection - Tetracycline & cephalosporins
Narrow spectrum - used when one knows what is causing the infection - Ciproflaxocin & erythromycin
What is super infection? List 2 organisms that cause it.
These infections are “opportunistic.” It seems that persons have bacterial that are part of the normal functioning of the body. Antimicrobial therapy can “Kill” the bacterial with white hats (our normal, “good-guy” bacteria), providing the Opportunity for other invading organisms to move in. Candida & Clostridium difficile
How do bugs become resistant to penicillin and erythromycin?
Bacteria acquire resistant genes through exchanging genes with other bacteria
List 2 types of "evasion" mechanisms. Please list the bacter that do these acts.
TB hids in phlegm and syphillis evades in antibotics
What is cross resistance? Please explain with names of antibiotics
Cross-resistance arises because the mechanism of resistance to several drugs is the same and arises through the identical genetic mutations. Vancomycin, pencillin, cephalsporins
List 3 ways of limiting antibiotic resistance
1. only use when necessary
2. take the complete coarse
3. Take combination drugs
Explain "antagonistic" reaction with examples
It is the opposite of a synergism. The example would pencillian & tetracycline
How does pandemic infection differ from sporadic infection. List example
Pandemic is an infection like AIDs that is a worldwide infection. Sporadic has no reason for the infection. An example would be West Nile virus
Differentiate epidemic outbreak from endemic infection with examples
Epidemic is something that cause an M&M like the flu in 2004. Endemic is something that does not cause and M&M like mumps or chicken pox
Explain the disease cycle with an example
Bubonic plaque - the disease cycle happens in cycles. It kills several people
Explain the 2 methods of controlling the spread of infectious diseases
Isolation - sick person separated from the healthy population
Quaratine - healthy person was exposed to infectious agent and is separated from the healthy population
List 3 nosocomial infections
Pseudomonas, VRE, E. coli
Mary has an unknown infection and Kate is suffering from bacterial diarrhea. What kind of antibiotics will you recommend?
Mary - BS Kate - NS
List 3 universal precautions
Gloves, masks, and wash hands