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112 Cards in this Set

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Endotoxin?
activates macrophages (iL-1, tnf), activates complement, activates Haegaman factor (DIC)
IgA Proteases?
S.pneumoniae, N. meningitis, N. gonorrhoaea, H. flu
Bug's that don't stain well?
Treponema --> darkfield microscopy and flourescent Ab staining; intracellular parasites--> Ricksettyia, Chylamdia, Mycoplasma --> no cell wall
E. coli stable toxin and labile toxin
labile--> stimulates adenylate cyclase
stable --> stimulates guanylate cyclase
Three bugs that stimulate adenylate cyclase?
all gram neg --> E.coli, V. chlorae, Bordella pertussis
Chocholate agar w/ factors V(NAD) and X(hematin)
H. influenza
Thayer Martin Media?
N. gonnorrhae
Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar?
B. pertussis
Tellurite plate, Loffer's medium, blood agar?
C. diptheriae
Lowenstein-Jensen Agar?
M. tuberculosis
MacConkey's Agar?
Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter
Charcoal yeast agar w/ iron and cysteine?
Legionella pneumophilia
Sabourad's agar?
Fungi
Ziehl-Neelsen stain?
Acid fast bacteria
India ink stain?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Giemsa stain?
Borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, Chlamydia
Obligate aerobes?
Nagging Pests Must Breathe
Nocardia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Myobacterium tuberculosis and Bacillus
Obligate anaerobes?
Clostridium, Bacteriodes, Actinomyces
Features of anaerobic bacteria?
foul smelling, difficult to culture and produce gas in tissue (co2 and H2)
Facultative intracellular bugs?
Myobacteria, Brucella, Francisella, Listeria, Yersinia, Legionella, Salmonella
Facultative intracellular bugs?
Myobacteria, Brucella, Francisella, Listeria, Yersinia, Legionella, Salmonella
Encapsulated bacteria?
S. pneumoniae, H. flu, N. menigitidis, K. pnemoniae
What is pneumoccocus associated with?
"rusty" sputum, sepsis in sickle cell anemia, splenectomy
What type of acids do spores have in their core?
dipicolnic acid
What are some Gram + spore formers?
Bacillus anthracis, C. perfringens, C. tetani
alpha hemolytic?
strep pneumoniae (optochin sensitive)
viridans streptococci (optochin negative)
B- hemolytic?
Staph aureaus (catalalase +, Coagulase +)
Strep pyogens (Catalase -, bacitracin +
Strep agalactaie (catalase neg, bacitracin rest)
Listeria Monocytogens
What are some features of Listeria?
Gram +, B- hemolytic, tumbling motility, meningitis in newborns, found in unpasteurized milk
What is the virulence factor of Staph aureus?
Protein A --> binds to Fc-IgG inhibiting complement fixation and phagocytosis
Toxin Mediated disease of Staph?
TSST-1, SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME (EXFOLIATIVE TOXIN) and rapid onset food posioning (enterotoxins)
Inflammatory disese of Staph?
skin infections (folliculitis, cellulitis, osteomyletis); organ abscesses and pneumonia w/ cavitations

Also, responsible for ACUTE bacterial endocarditis
Virulence factor for Group A strep?
M -protein --> inhibits activation of complement and prevents phagocytosis
Group A strep --> Pyogenic?
pharnygitis, cellulitis, impetigo
Group A Strep --> Toxigenic?
Scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome
Group A Strep --> Immunologic?
rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis

BACITRACIN SENSITIVE
What are some gamma hemolytic Gram+ organisms?
Enterococci faecalis and faecium
What are enterococci responsible for?
What are they resistant to?
UTI and subacute endocarditis

Resistant to Penicillin G
What is Lancefield grouping based on?
differences in C-carbohydrate on bacterial wall
What are some Viridans group streptococci?
NORMAL FLORA of oropharynx

S. mutans --> dental caries
S. sanguis --> subacute bacterial endocarditis
Difference between toxin of C. botulism and C. perfringens?
C. botulism -->preformed, heat-labile toxin that INHIBITS Ach (neurotoxin)

C. perfringens--> alpha toxin, lechinase that causes myonecrosis, gas gangrene or hemolysis
Clostridum tetanus toxin?
produces an exotoxin that blocks glycine relase (inhibitory transmitter) from Renshaw cells of spinal cord
What encodes toxin for C. diptheriae?

What is fxn of toxin?
beta prophage

inhibits protein synthesis via ADP ribosylation of EF-2
Lab diagnosis for diptheria?
gram + rods w/ metachromic granules
Which gram + rods form "sulfur granules" in sinus tracts?
Actinomyces israelii
Which ug may form oral/facial abscesses?
actinomyces
Which long-branching bacteria is aerobic and may cause pulmonary infectios in immunocompromised patients?
Nocardia
SNAP?
Sulfa for Nocardia, Acinomyces use penicillin
What bug responsible for food poisoning in ,eats. mayonnaise, custard?
S. aureus
Reheated meat dishes?
C. perfringens
Undercooked meat?
E. coli 0157:H7
poultry, meat, eggs?
Salmonella
Ferments lactose?
E. coli
Comma shaped organisms?
Vibrio cholerae
Does not ferment lactose, motile?
Salmonella

bloody diarrhea
Does not ferment lactose, nonmotile?
SHIGELLA - bloody diarrhea
Comma or S-shaped organisms that grow at 42 degrees
Campylobacter jejuni; bloody diarrhea
Transmitted from pet feces?
Yersinia entercolitica (bloody diarrhea)
What bugs cause watery diarrhea?
V. cholera, enterotoxigenic E. Coli, viruses (rotavirus) and protozoans
What protozoans cause watery diarrhea?
cyptosporidium and giardia
What bugs cause bloody diarrhea?
Salmonella, shigella, C. jejuni, Yersinia entercolitica, enterohemorrhagic/enteroinvasive E.coli and Entaomoba histolytica
What bugs are in the enterobacteriacae family?
E.coli, Salmonella, Klebesiaella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus
Features of the enterobacteriacae family?
O antigen --> polysaccharide of endotoxin
K antigen --> virulence of bug
H antigen --> flagella

FERMENT GLUCOSE, OXIDASE NEGATIVE
What does H. flu cause?
Epiglottis
Meningitis
Otitis Media
Pneumonia
How is legionella transmitted?

How is it treated?
aerosol

NO person-to-person contact

erytromycin
What type of endotoxin/exotoxin does P. aeruginosa produce?
endotoxin --> fever, shock
exotoxin A --> inactivates EF-2
Treatment of psuedomonas?
aminoglycoside + extended spectrum penicilin (pipercillin, ticarcillin)
What does PSEUdomonas cause?
pnuemonia (esp. cystic fibrosis)
sepsis
external otits (swimmer's ear)
UTI
hot tub folliculitis
wound and burn infectios
Which is more virulent... Salmonella or SHigella?
Shigella is more virulent, but symptoms of salmonella may be prolonged w/ Ab treatments
Which is more virulent... Salmonella or SHigella?
Shigella is more virulent, but symptoms of salmonella may be prolonged w/ Ab treatments
How are shigella and salmonella transferred?
Salmonella --> animal reservoir

Shigella --> Food, Finger, Feces, Flies
Which toxin permanently activates Gs? Permanently diasbales Gi?
Vibrio Cholera

Pertussis Toxin
Lyme Disease
Borrelia burgdorferia; Ixodes tick
Brucellosis?
brucella spp. --> cause undulating fever

DAIRY PRODUCTS
Tularemia
Francisella tularenesis

caseating granulomas, fever, tick bite, rabbit, deer
Plague
Yersinia Pestis

rodents, especially prarie dogs
Animal bites, cats dogs
Pasteurella multocida
What causes Waterhouse Friederichsen syndrome and meningitis?
meningococci; polysaccharide capsule present
What causes septic arthritis, neonatal conjuctivitis and PID?
gonococci
4 bugs that cause atypical pneumonia?
Mycoplasma
Chylamdia pneumonia
Legionella
Viruses

also, PCPin AIDS patients
Animal bites, cats dogs
Pasteurella multocida
Only bacterial membrane containing cholesterol
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
What is trhe Weil-Felix reaction?
reaction assays for antirickettsial ab's

cross reacts w/ proteus antigen
What would a + Weil -Felix indicate?
typhus
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

NOT Q fever
Centripetal rash spread vs. centriphugal spread
spotted fever vs. typhus
Rash on palms and soles seen in?
Rocky mountain spotted fever, syphylis, and coxsackievirus A infection
Treatment of choice for rickesttsial infections?
tetracycline
Coxiella burneii?
Q fever
(inhaled aerosols)
What bug is responsible for arthritis, conjunctivitis,, pneumonia and nongonoccoal urethritis?
chlamydia

petidoglycan wall lacks muramic acid
2 forms of chlamydia?
Elementary

Reticulate

C.trachomatis and C.pneumoninae only infect humans
Tx of chlymadia?
erythromycin or tetracycline
Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes?
A,B,C --> chronic infection causing blindness
D-K - urethritis, PID, ectopic pregancy, neonatal pneumonia, neonatal conjunctivitis
L1-L3 - lymphogranuloma venereum
3 spirochetes?
Borrelia = big
Leptospira
Treponema
Stages of Lyme Diesase
a) erythema chronicum migrans
b) neurologic/cardiac manifestations
c) autoimmune migratory polyarthritis
Treponema pallidum vs. T. pertenue?
syphilis vs. yaws
VRDL vs. FTA-ABS
FTA-ABS --> specific for syphylis, turns positive early in disease remains positive longest. VDRL is less specific
VDRL false postives?
viruses
drugs
rheumatic fever, rhematic arthritis
lupus
leprosy
Dimorphic fungi?
coccidiomycoses --> southwestern US, CAli
histoplasmosis --> mississippi and ohio river valleys (bat/bird droppings)
blastomycosis --> states east of mississippi river and central america
paracoccidiomycoses - rural latin america
Opportunistic fungal infections
candida albicans
aspergillus funigatus - mold, 45 angle
cyrptococcus neoformas - heavily encapsulated; culture on sabouraud's agar
Mucor and Rhizopus spp. - mold, wide angles >90
DNA viruses
Hepadna
Herpes
Adeno
Pox
Parvo
Papova
What do live-attenuated viruses do?
induce humoral and cell mediated immunity
What are some live attenuted viruses?
measles, mumps, rubella, sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever, smallpox
Killed viruses?
rabies, influenza, HAV, Salk
Segmented viruses?
bunyavirus, orthomyxovirus, arenavirus, reovirus

BOAR
Virus most important for global infantile diarrhea?
Rotavirus

segmented dsDNA
Councilman bodies in the liver?
Yellow fever
Arboviruses?
falvivirus, togavirus, bunyavirus
Rabies Virus?
negri bodies in the cytoplasm
bullet shaped capsid
long incubation periods
fatal encephalitis w/ seizures and hydrophobia

travels to CNS by migrating in retrograde fashion to nerve axons
Influenza virus?
contains hemagglutin and neuraminidase antigens
Tzanck test?
detects multinucleated giant cells; used to assay HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV
What does CCR5 and CXCR1 mutation mean?
CCR5 homogenous -->immunity
hetyerogenous --> slower course

CXCR1 rapid progression to AIDS
Normal clora of colon?
bacteroides fragilis > E.coli
Normal flora of the vagina?
lactobacillus, E.coli and group B strep