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15 Cards in this Set

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How big are most bacteria?
0.15 - 10 microns

*Limit of Human Vision ~30 microns
Bacteria of all sizes:

A. 0.1 - 0.3 microns?
B. 0.5 x 1-3 microns?
C. 1-1.3 x 3-10 microns?
A. Rickettsiae and Mycoplasma
B. Escherichia coli
C. Bacillus anthracis
Bacterial Nucleus
Nucleoid
Typically a SINGLE, CIRCULAR molecule.
(though many are not)

E.coli = 5,000Kb
Mycoplasma = 600Kb
Cytoplasmic Membrane

Composition?
Membrane Proteins? (3)
Membrane Properties? (4)
25% Lipid, 70% Protein

Peripheral, Integral, Transmembrane

- Permeable to H2O and small hydrophobic molecules. (Specificity req for most uptake)
- >200 different proteins
- Directionality of membrane
- No sterols *Unlike Eukaryotes
What is Peptidoglycan (structure)?

What is DAP?
G-M-G-M-G-M (NAG; NAM)

extending down from M is:
L-ala, D-glu, DAP, D-ala

Cross-linking occurs between DAP and D-ala

DAP = DiAminoPamelic acid. Unique aa to bacteria.
Cross-linking inhibited by?

Other steps in peptidoglycan synth are inhibited by> (3)
B-lactams (Penicillins and Cephalosporins)

Bacitracin (prevents regen of phospholipid carrier)
Vacomycin (glycopeptide) - (bind D-ala, prevent intrxns)
Cycloserine (inhibts incorporation of D-ala)
PAMP

T/F. PAMP is a type of PG
Pathogen Associated Molecular Protein

False, PG is a type of PAMP
PGs are recognized by cells of the innate system.
Gram Positive Cell Wall

Contains __% more/less PG than Gram NEG

Contains Unique Compound?
50-90% MORE PG

Teichoic Acid and/or Teichuronic Acid. A polyhydroxy alcohol phosphate compound. (either Glycerols and/or Ribitols)
Gram Negative Cell Wall

Unique compound?

Compound is classified as a __A__ and will cause __B__
LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) [aka Endotoxin]
composed of Lipid - TOXIC portion AND Carbo - ANTIGENIC

A. PAMP (reacts w TLR4)
B. Endotoxic Shock
Gram Negative Outer Membrane
Strong permeability barrier
Barrier to both hydro-philic/phobic solutes
Have PORINS (entry for B-lactams and fluoroquinolones)

Mutate Porin - still functional, but bacteria now resistant to antibiotics
Capsules and Slime Layers

Composition?

Function?
Capsule = sharply delineated
Slime Layer = extensive and diffuse

Organic Polymer - "Capsular Substances"
-Carbs, AnimoSugars, Sugar Acids
-D-glu
-99% water

Not required for maintenance.
May protect bacteria against Phagocytes
Produce Biofilms
Flagella

Structure, Function, Orientation
Single Filament used for MOVEMENT in liquid media

Flagellum rotates like a propeller
Flagella are PAMS which react with TLR5

Can be:
Monopolar
Bipolar
Peritrichous
Pili
Fimbriae

Used for Receptor-Specific Adhesion
Have a Host Specificity
Purified to make a VACCINE
Spores (Endospores)
Have highly dehydrated Dormant stage

Formed in BACILLUS, and CLOSTRIDIUM

Resistant to heat, dessication, radiation, chemical reagents
Process of Bacterium becoming a Spore?

Process of Spores becoming Bacteria?
Sporulation (inadequate nutrition for bacteria may stimulate sporulation)

Germination