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29 Cards in this Set

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Morphology of Enterobacteriaceae?

O2 req?

Where are they found?
Gram Negative Rods

Facultative Anaerobes

Intestine (mostly Ileum and Colon, *anaerobes outnumber Coliforms here, but there are still ~10^9 Coliforms) and plants
Eneterobacteriacae aka?
Coliforms
Whats the big deal with these coliforms?
They have a large antibiotic resistance
Who does E. coli infect?
Where?
Are they very pathogenic?
Warm blooded hosts
Distal ileum to colon
Some strains virulent, some avirulent
Where do the virulent strains come from?
Asymptomatic carriers
What diseases are associated with E. coli?
Enteric colibacillosis - diarrhea
- neonatal pigs, rums, dogs, cats
- nursing/weaning pigs (stress, diet change)
- traveler's diarrhea in humans
Delivery differences in the following toxins:

ETEC
EPEC
STEC
ETEC - outside cell, penetrates enterocyte
EPEC - needle drives toxins into cells
STEC outside cell, travels all the way through enterocyte, enters bloodstream
ETEC

What does it stand for?
What does it cause?
How does it colonize?
How does it damage host?
EnteroToxigenic E. Coli

watery diarrhea

fimbriae, pili, adhesins

Enterotoxins
Heat labiles = 1A5B - ^CAMP -- ^Cl -- low Na resportion -- ^H2O efflux
Heat stables = pepties - STa -- ^cGMP
EPEC

What does it stand for?
What is it also known as?
How does it damage host?
EnteroPathogenic E.Coli

Attaching and Effacing E. Coli (AEEC)

Inject bacterial molecules into host:
Affect cytoskeletal machinery
Signal transduction mechs
- attach and efface lesions
- loss of microvilli, effacement and cupping
What is really cool about what the EPEC inject into you?
They inject molecules to make Receptors for their fellow EPECs.
Also causes actin polymerization which forms of Pedastool
Why does EPEC cause diarrhea?
*Loss of Absorptive Surfaces*
Mess w/ Integrity of tight jnxns
STEC

What does it stand for?
What weapons do they have?
What does it cause?
How is it transmitted?
ShigaToxin producing E. Coli

EPEC weapons (injection / pedastool)
SHIGA-TOXIN = 1A5B

Hemorrhagic colitis, Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Really hits younger animals.
Knocks out Kidneys.

Don't eat undercooked meat! Animals can transmit the Dz to humans.
(Meat, Milk, manure used for crops - Lettuce, Sprouts, Potatoes)
E. coli in pigs?
Pig Edema Disease (E. coli enterotoxemia)

Ateriopathy, edema (subQ, cardia, mesocolon)
Neurological disorders in weaned pigs

Produces Shigatoxin => Vasotoxin
Non enteric E. coli?

(4 non-enteric infections)
Septicemia
(Ig def, make sure newborn gets colostrum)
(Colibacillosis in poultry)

Mastitis
(MMA - Metritis, Mastitis, Agalaciae Syndrome)

UTIs
(cystitis in dogs, cats)

Nosocomial infections
Endotoxin in SMALL amounts will activate _______ to _______:

Macrophages/Monocytes
B-Lymphocytes
Complement
Up IL's and TNS --> Acute Phase Proteins and Fever

Up Antibody Synth

Up Alternative Path -- Inflammation
Endotoxin in LARGE amounts will cause: (2 things)
Macrophage/Monocytes --- Up IL1 and TNFa ---> SHOCK

Hageman Factor -- release of clotting factors ---> DIC
What element to bacteria compete for (and thus steal from) the host?
Iron

Use siderophores as Iron Sequestrants
Can E. coli infect the urinary tract too?
Yes! UPEC = Uropathogenic E. coli

Look for PMNs in urine, decent indicator
4 F's of Hygiene
Finger
Feces
Food
Flies
Salmonella

Reservoir?
Infect?
Trasmitted?
Intestinal Tract of humans/animals

S. enterica subgenus I = pathogen of warm-blooded animals

Water/Food contaminated w/feces
Milk, meat, eggs
Pasture and Farm Animal Feeds
What Dz does Salmonella cause?
Bacteremia or Septicemia
Gastroenteritis
Salmonella v E. coli infections?
E. coli tend to stay in the gut

Salmonella invade
(thru M-cells in Peyer's Patches, thru Dendritic cells to Lymph nodes, or just Transepithelially migrating.
How can S. typhi hurt you?
Ingest S. typhi

1. Small Intestine -- Inflamm/Ulceration -- DIARRHEA, HEMORRHAGE

2. Taken into Lymph -- Spleen -- Liver -- Bile -- GallBladder -- CHOLECYSTITIS

3. Lymph -- Spleen -- Liver -- Blood -- SEPTICEMIA, Fever, Kidneys and more infected.
Therapy for Salmonella
Wide Spectra Antibiotics

for carriers
-don't use antibiotics
-survey feces
-maintain good hygiene
-freeze, pasteurize, etc...

Vaccinate
What bacteria was responsible for the Black Death / the Bubonic Plague
Yersinia pestis

Gram NEG Rods
Reservoir for Yersinia pestis?
How is it transmitted?
Hosts?
Rodents
Flea (vector) - or Aerosol (pneumonic plague)
Mammals are host. Including Dog, Cat, Human
How fast will pneumonic plague kill you?

What does bubonic plague look like?
3-5 days

Flippin Huge Lymph Nodes - filled with Y. pestis which replicates like crazy. (BLACK)
What's the deal with Proteus?
P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris

Otitis externa & UTI's
Have Urease and Flagella

Polymyxin and Nitrofurantoin Resistant
What's the deal with Klebsiella?
K. pneumoniae

Mucosa of animals/humans
(Genital tract, Respiratory tract)

Has a Capsule
Ampicillin Resistant