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25 Cards in this Set

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Name the Family that Campylobacter belongs to. What other bacterial genus belong to this?
Campylobacteriaceae
Arcobacter also.
Campylobacter:
1. Gram?
2. Shape?
3. Spore former?
4. T/pH
5. Motile?
Gram negative
Spiral
Non-sporulating
T: 32-45 for growth
dies at pH<5.0
Motile? YES.
Incidence rate of Campylobacter compared to other bacteria?
Camp. is #1 (but not for outbreaks). Interestingly, it's seasonal too.
List come characteristic of Camp.
**Fastidious organism: requires O2<5%; CO2 >10% "microaerobic" conditions.
- Catalase positive
- In general (unlike Salmonella), sensitive to pH, T
- Capable of surviving freezing, refridgeration
What are the two main species of camp? How many species total are there?
Two main player: jejuni and coli; there are 18.


Some others: fetus
Which species of camp causes the most outbreaks?
jejuni
What are the disease characteristics of camp?
1. gastroenteritis (vs. salmonella is enterocolitis): fever, cramps, diarrhea. last 2-3 days
2. Complications of systemic nature:
- Can cause abortion!
- Guillain-Barre symdrome - acute paralytic disorder
-meningitis
-Bacteremia (blood poisoning by bacteria)
What is Guillain Barre Syndrome?
A systemic complication of Camp. infection: ~.5 cases/100,000 - characterized by acute paralysis.
What is the incubation time of a camp infection? Infectious dose?
2 to 5 days (8 to 72 hours for Salmonellosis)
Dose: 500 CFU (approx)
By what mechanism does camp make people sick? (C. jejuni)
It's an infection - it invades cells.
1. Attachment to host cell
2. Invasions
3. Induction of Apoptosis
Virulence factors of C. jejuni?
- Flagella genes (flaA, flaB): motility
- Cholera-like enterotoxin
- Cytolethal distending toxin
Ecology - where does Camp like to live?
Camp are zoonotic organisms that colonize the GI tract of many animals (this is true of salmonella as well)
**ALSO found in WATER!!
What does "zoonotic" mean?
Zoonotic refers to an organism that commonly colonizes the GI tract of animals
What specific animal intestines/feces is Camp most often found in? (jejuni vs. coli?)
Chicken --> jejuni
Swine --> coli
Sheep
Cattle
#1 Food most often implicated in Camp outbreaks?

What about with sporadic cases?
#1: Milk and Dairy

Sporadic: Poultry #1 by far / a fair number of cases are also from contact w/ pets!!
What are the most common foods in which camp can be found?
Poulty by far!!!
Also, raw pork, beef, and unpasteurized milk.
How is camp detected? (what are they steps)
1. homogenization
2. Enrichment in microaerobic environment: 32-42ºC
3. Selective Plating - 42ºC in CCDA Preston or Campy-Cefex
4. Confirmatory steps
(much simpler than Salmonella)
In differentiating between the strains of Camp, what can be used?
--> jejuni can hydrolize Hippurate
--> fetus grows at 25 (jejuni at coli grow at 42 best)
How to control Camp in foods?
1. Pasteurize/ heat treat
2. GMP, sanitation
3. prevent cross-contaminaton(sporadic cases)
Largest Camp outbreak - what food?
Lettuce!! (c. jejuni)
Is Camp resistant to Antibiotics?
Oh, yes - it's been THE micro to study for this.
What are the mechanisms by which a micro can be resistant to antimicrobial?
1. Antibiotic degrading enzyme
2. " altering enzyme
3. " efflux pump
4. Spontaneous mutation of gene
If Camp develops a mutation such that it is resistant to antimicrob; is this a problem w/other bacteria?
YES!!! Bacteria are promiscuous! Enterobacteriacea can swap DNA with enterococcus. A bacteria can be resistant to a antibiotic w/out ever have been exposed to it.
What is the antibiotic that Camp is resistant to that is the biggest concern?

What is believe to be the reason why it is resistant?
Fluoroquinolone - it's generally the "last resort".

Studies seem to show a link between antibiotic use in chickens to increasing cases of camp. jejuni resistant to fluoroquinolone.
What is the #1 thing to remember when thinking about Camp properties?
That it's a fastidious organism: Microaerobic environment - <5% 02, >10% Co2 needed.