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75 Cards in this Set

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Obligate intracellular parasites
mode of nutrition for acellular viruses
Viron
complete fully develpoed infectious viral particle composed of neucleic acid surrounded by a protien coat that protects it from the enviroment
Capsid
protien coat that surrounds the nucleic acid
capsomenres
subunits of the protein coat
Envelope
In some cases, viruses are covered by it
Spikes
cover the envolope used to help birus arrach to the host cell
Bacteriophages
grown in bacteria cultures
Embryonated eggs
amniotic inoculatin, yolk sac, embryo itself
Cell Cultures
replaced embryonated eggs as teh preferred type of growth medium for many viruses.
Viral Multiplication
Attachment
Penentration
Biosynthesis
Maturation
Release
DNA Oncogenic Viruses
causative agents of Burketts lymphomas
RNA Oncogenic Viruses
human t-cell lukemia viruses
Latent Viral Incections
can remain equilibrium with the host and not actually produce disease for long periods
Chickenpox Birus
exist in latent stat in nerve cells. Later changes in the immune response can activate these latent viruses causeing shingles
Prions(protienaceous infectious particle)
Pure protein causative agent, which causes neurological diseases in animals
Viroids
short pices of naked RNA, only 300-400 nucleotides.
Have only been shown to be plant pathogens
Chickenpox
Varicella
Shingles
Herpes Zoster(latent Varicella virus)
German Measles
Rubella
Red or Hard measles
Rubeola
Poliomyelitis
Polio of infantile paralysis
Vaccine: Sabin
Smallpox
Variola Major
Mumps
paramyxovirus
Rabies(hydrophobia)
Rabies virus
Pasteur developed first vaccine
Ebola
Hemorrhagic fever
filovirus which causes a disease with mortality rate approaching 90%
West Nile
Western equine encephalitis
Hepatitis A
infectious hepatitis transmited through fecal contaminated food and drink
Hepatitis B
Serum hepatitis
Transmitted through blood, saliva, breastmilk, and semen
AIDS
Kills cells with CD4 antigens and kills Th cells
Cold Sores and Fever blisters
Herpes simplex(hsv-1)
Genital Herpes
Herpes Simples(hsv-2)
Influenza
many different strains
Common cold
cold virus-no vaccine
Epidemiology
science that studies when and where a disease occurs and how it is transmitted
Pathology
concerned with the cause of the disease of the etiology
Etiology
cause of the disease
Infection
invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
Disease
infection results in any change from a state of heath
Normal microbiota
normal flora microorganisms that establish permanent residence but do not produce disease under normal conditions
Transient microbiota
may be present for several days or weeks then disappears
Microbial antagonism
normal microbiota benefit the host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful microorganisms
Symbiosis
relationship between host and microorganisms
Commensalism
one of the organisms benefits and the other is unaffected
Mutualism
both organisms benefits
Protocooperation
two organisms that cannot live without the presence of each other
Parasitism/predation
one organism is benefited and the expense og the other
Koch's Postulates
1. Same pathogen must gbe present in ever case of disease
2. Pathogen must be isolated from the disease host and grown in pure culture.
3. Pathogen from pure culture must cause the disease when it is innoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal
4. Pathogen must be isolate from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism
Symptoms
changes in body function such as pain and malaise
Signs
changes the physician can observe and measure
Syndrome
specific group of symptoms or signs always accompany a disease
Communicable disease
spread from one host to another
Contagious diseases
easily spread from one person to another
non communicable diseases
not spread from one host to another
Sporadic disease
disease that ony occurs occasionally
Endemic disease
disease taht is constantly present in a polpulation
Epidemic disease
spread of disease in a given area ina relatively short period
Pandemic Disease
epidemic that occurs worldwide
Acute disease
develops rapidly but last only a short time
Chronic
develops more slowly and the body's reactions may be less sever
Subacute disease
diseases that causative agent reamins inavtive fro a tim then becomes avtive to produce symptoms of the disease
Local Infection
one that the invading microorganisms are limited to a small area of body
Systemic
generalized infection
Focal infection
begins in local area then spreads
Bacteremia
presence of bacterial in the blood
Septisemia
bacteria multiplies in blood
Viremia
presence of viruses in the blood
Primary infection
acute infection that causes the initial illness
Secondary infection
caused by opportunistic pathogen after primary infection has weakened body's defenses
Clinical
seek medical attention
sub-clinical
do not cause any noticeable illness
Incubation period
interval between initial infection and first appearance of signs or symptoms
Prodromal Period
follows the period of incubation
Period of Illness
disease is most acute exhibits signs and symptoms
Period of decline
signs and symptoms subside
Period of convalescence
patient regains strength and the body returns to its pre-diseased state