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34 Cards in this Set

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Proteins are VERY LARGE molecules which are important for all the following functions
growth, maintenance, and replacement of body tissue
Functions of proteins

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze most biochemical reactions
Enzyme catalysis
Functions of proteins

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze most biochemical reactions
Enzyme catalysis
Functions of Proteins

Hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen in the body; Ferritin is a protein that transports (from the blood plasma to the liver) and stores (in the liver) iron in the body
Transport and storage
Functions of enzymes

Actin and Myosin are proteins that provide muscle expansion and contraction
Coordinated motion
Functions of Enzymes

Collagen, Keratin, and other proteins are the chief constituents of skin, bone, hair, and fingernails
Structural
Functions of Enzymes

Antibodies are proteins that protect the body from foreign substances called antigens and help the body fight diseases
Immune protection
Functions of enzymes

Insulin, Oxytocin, and other proteins are hormones
Hormones
Functions of Enzymes (last one!)

Receptor proteins mediate the response of nerve cells to specific stimuli
Generation and transmission of nerve impulses
_______ are the building blocks of proteins.
Amino acids
Amino acids are composed of a ___________ and a _______________.
amine and a carboxylic acid
How many COMMON amino acids are there?
20
If all amino acids have the amine and the carboxyllic acids, what makes 20 DIFFERENT amino acids?
The group found on the "R" or side group
How many ESSENTIAL amino acids are there?
10
Amino acids are classified according to the ‘R’ group
Nonpolar ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and are hydrophobic (not souble in water)

Alcohol ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain an alcohol (-OH)

Thiol (Sulfur) ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain a sulfur

Basic ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain an amine

Acidic ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain a carboxylic acid

Aromatic ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain a benzene ring

Amide ‘R’ group – These amino acids contain an amide
What do we know about the acidity/basicity of an amino acid?
Amino acids can act as an acid (Carboxyllic acids) or a base (amine).
Because the molecule has regions of acidity and basicity, amino acids are GOOD ___________
BUFFERS
Amino acids have ions that have both a negative and a positive charge within the same structure... these structures are called
Zwitterions
At what pH does a protein act as a zwitter ion (contain both + and - ions)
AT ITS ISOELECTRIC POINT

(different pH for each amino acid)
At pH’s lower than the isoelectric point, the amino acid is
a positive ion
At pH’s higher than the isoelectric point, the amino acid is
a negative ion
______ are molecules that contain two or more amino acids
Peptides
_____ are polypeptides with more than 50 amino acids joined together
Proteins
What are the FOUR levels of protein structure
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quatenary
The primary structure of a protein is determined by
the sequence of amino acids

-what amino acids come after eachother will dictate how the molecule will look.
The secondary structure of proteins is
more involved with the folding and the geometric space occupied by the amino acids
What are two common SECONDARY PROTEIN STRUCTURES?
Alpha helix
Beta pleaded sheets
The tertiary structure of a protein is
a proteins three dimensional structure
Tertiary structure of a protein is mantained by
R group or side chain interactions
What are the four types of tertiary interactions in proteins
Covalent Cross Linkages or Disulfide Linkages

Hydrogen Bonding

Salt bridges

Hydrophobic Interactions
The quaternary structure of proteins is
the way that proteins with more than one polypeptide chain fit together
What is the denaturation of proteins?
When a protein looses its biological abilities
What are common causes of denaturation?
Heat
pH
Salinity
Heavy metals
Organic solvents
Reducing agents
What is the sequence in which proteins are hydrolyzed
Proteins --> Peptides --> Amino acids

(breaking down proteins)