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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Lipids are

-nonpolar
-bipolar
-polar
-hyperpolar
Nonpolar
Lipids are a class of biomolecules whose only common feature is
that they are NOT soluble in water
What are the important functions of lipids
-structural component of MEMBRANES

-ENERY STORAGE

-PROTECTIVE coating

-metabolic regulation (warmth)
What are fatty acids?
long-chain monocarboxylic (mono = 1) acids that are the major components of fats and oils

Basically long hydrocarbon chains with a carbonyl group
What are three major characteristics of fatty acids?

-solubility
-arrangement
-bonding
INSOLUBLE in water (like all lipids)

Ussually made up of EVEN number of carbons in a STRAIGHT chain.

May or May not include double bonds
If a fatty acid chain includes double bonds it is called
UNSATURATED
If a fatty acid chain contains several double bonds it is termed
POLY unsaturated
If a fatty acid has no double bonds it is then called
SATURATED
Lipds are distinguished in to TWO categories. What are they?
Saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids
Name the 5 examples of saponifiable lipids
Waxes
Triglycerides
Phosphoglycerides
Sphingolypids
Glycolipids
Name the 2 examples of non-saponifiable lipids
Steroids and Terpenes (TARPAN, lol)
Waxes are...
esters of fatty acids and long-chain alcohols
What is the purpose of waxes
protective coatings for hair, skin, and feathers, and to protect plants from dehydration and insects
Triglycerides, which are also known as triglycerols, are
esters of glycerol and three fatty acids
Glycerols are classified as monoglycerols, diglycerols or triglycerols according to WHAT?
the number of fatty acids they have attached to the glycerol group.
Fats are ________ at room temperature and are obtained usually from
________ sources
SOLIDS; ANIMAL
Oils are ________ at room temperature and are obtained usually from _______ sources
liquid; PLANT
WHAT CONDITIONS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE "HYDROLYSIS" OF TRIGLYCERIDES TO TAKE PLACE?
3 moles of water +
H+ or lipase
What are the two PRODUCTS we get in the process of "HYDROLYSIS" of tricerides?
GLYCEROL and THREE fatty acids
in the "HYDROLYSIS" of triglycerides, which bond is cleaved?
The bond between the Carbonyl Carbon and its neighboring oxygen.
HYDROLYSIS of triglycerides
Name the reaction
"SAPONIFICATION" of triglycerides
Name the reaction
What are the products in "SAPONIFICATION" of triglycerides?
Glycerol and 3 SALTs of fatty acids
What conditions are required for the saponification of triglycerides?
a BASE (KOH, LiOH, NaOH) and Water
What simple property is at play in the "cleaning action of soap"?
Like dissolves like
In the cleaning action of soap, what are the characteristics of the heads and tails of soap molecules?
Soap molecules have polar heads (hydrophyllic) and non-polar tails (hydrophobic)
what part of the soap molecule is responsible for the removal of oil and dirt from the skin?
The TAILS of the soap since they are NONPOLAR as is dirt and oil
Emulsions that are formed can be broken down into smaller bodies called __________ as a result of scrubbing.
Micelles
Hydrogenation of Triglycerides
Name the reaction
What catalyst is required to HYDROGENATE triglycerides?
Ni, Pt, Pd (one of these)
In the food pyramid where do fats and oils sit? Why?
On the top. Because they should be used sparingly to prevent artheriosclerosis
1 gram of fat or oil
9 calories
1 gram of carbohydrates or proteins
4 calories
Lipids have a _____ energy content
HIGH
Unused nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) are converted into small ____________ that are deposited in _____________
GLOBULES OF FAT; ADIPOSE TISSUE
The energy storage of ___________is long-term, unlike the energy storage of __________, which is short-term
ADIPOSE TISSUE; GLYCOGEN
Percent fat (% fat) =
(fat calories/total calories) × 100
Fat calories =
number of grams of fat listed on the label × (9 calories/1 gram of fat)
Phosphoglycerides have two fatty acids: a ____________ and an _________________
PHOSPHATE GROUP; AMINO ALCOHOL
Phosphoglycerudes are found in
cell membranes
The fluid mosaic model says that a cell membrane has a double layer of phospholipids, which is called the ____________
lipid bilayer
The center of this layer has ________ hydrocarbon tails
The outer surface has the polar phosphate and amino alcohol groups
nonpolar on the inside and polar surface (much like soap)
TOUGH QUESTION!

Sphingolipids contain
the amino alcohol sphingosine, instead of glycerol, one fatty acid, a phosphate group, and an amino alcohol
Unlike most saponifiable lipids, they have an amide bond instead of an ester bond
Sphingolipids are found in
the brain and nerve tissue
Glycolipids contain
sphingosine, one fatty acid, and a monosaccharide (usually galactose or glucose)
Glycolipids are found in
the brain and in the myelin of neurons
__________ have a fused-ring structure that is called the steroid nucleus
Steroids
_____________ is the most common type of steroid
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is essential for the production of
hormones, vitamin D and bile acids
Where is cholesterol found in the body?
brain, nerve tissue, myelin, cellular membranes and the liver
What are the TWO sources of Cholesterol in the body?
Those synthesized by the body from fats

AND

Those consumed in animal products
________ are found in essential oils and flavorings, chlorophyll, and the visual pigments of the retina
terpene
Vitamin _____ is a Terpene
A