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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define bioterrorism
the use of biological agents to cause damage, death and/or fear
Give two historical examples of bioterrorism
Middle Ages: soldiers placed corpses into public wells

British gave smallpox-contaminated blankets to the Native Americans during early settlement
Give two modern examples of bioterrorism
World War II: Japan 'flea bombs' (bubonic plague)

Iraq developed Scud missiles w/ Bacillus anthracis during Gulf war
What are the top four agents used for bioterrorism?
Bacillus anthracis
Yersinia pestis
Botulism toxin
Bacillus anthracis morphology
Gram-positive spore-forming rod
What are the three forms of disease caused by anthrax bacilli?
cutaneous (least severe)
gastrointestinal (fairly severe)
inhalation (most severe)
Which is the most lethal form of anthrax?
inhalation anthrax
At least how many spores must be inhaled of B. anthracis for it to cause disease?
2000, in fine suspension to bypass upper airway
What two toxins are produced during cutaneous anthrax infection?
Edema toxin
Lethal toxin
What does B. anthracis 'lethal toxin' do in cutaneous infections?
causes black necrotic area called eschar
What is an eschar?
black necrotic region do to action of 'lethal toxin' of B. anthracis
What happens to B. anthracis spores after getting past upper airway?
taken up by lung macrophages
transported to lymph nodes
Where do B. anthracis spores germinate after inhalation?
lymph nodes
Where do B. anthracis spores produce toxin after inhalation?
lymph nodes
What are the effects of the two toxins of B. anthracis during inhalation infection?
Edema: prodocuces fluid in lungs

Lethal: in bloodstrea, causes shock and death
B. anthracis ingestion leads to germination of spores in __ or ___
oropharynx or lower intestine
Death rate of cutaneous anthrax in untreated cases is < ___%
Describe the two stages of inhalation anthrax
one: influenza like symptoms (headaches, muscle aches, malaise)
two: difficulty breathing, neurological problems
Smallpox is a viral disease caused by ___
the variola virus
Morphology of Yersinia pestis
Gram-negative bacterium
What is the causative agent of bubonic plague?
Yersinia pestis
Where does Y. pestis multiply?
lymph nodes
Is Y. pestis capable of blocking phagocytosis?
Morphology of Clostridium botulinum
Gram-positive spore-forming rod
T/F: Clostridium botulinum cannot survive in the environment
F. It is a common soil bacterium
What makes botulism toxin?
Clostridium botulinum
What is the most potent toxin known?
botulism toxin
What are botulism toxin's commercial applications?
medical uses as a neurotoxin to treat spastic muscles
Why is water-supply contamination with botulism toxin not a concern?
would be highly diluted, likely sticking to particulates in the water
Is botulism toxin easily detectable?