Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The ___ on the surface of bacteria attaches to the host cell receptor
adhesin
Give two examples of adhesins
pili, capsule
give two examples of host cell receptors
glycoproteins, glycolipids
In what four ways does the host respond to adherent organisms?
-production of antibodies against bacterial surface
- upreg of antimicrobial peptide production by epithelial cells
- phagocytosis
- shedding/destruction of colonized epithelial cells
What are the two techniques used by N. gonorrhoeae to evade host immune system?
adherence
antigenic variation
Give morphology of N. gonorrhoeae
non-motile
non-sporulating
Gram-negative cocci
usually seen in pairs with adjacent sides flattened
How does Neisseria gonorrhoeae spread?
direct contact, due to fragility
What are Neisseria gonorrhoeae major virulence factors?
adhesins
antigenic variation
resistance to MAC of complement
What is host range of Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
humans only
___ carriers are a major factor in the spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
asymptomatic
How does Neisseria gonorrhoeae enter body?
mucous membranes of genitourinary tract
In males Neisseria gonorrhoeae commonly causes ___
urethritis (inflammation of urethra)
In females the primary infection is present in the ___ (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
endocervix
What is one of the major complications of untreated gonorrhea?
dissemination into uterus and fallopian tubes causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
___ is a major cause of sterility in women
PID
in 3% of cases, Neisseria gonorrhoeae can cause ___
gonococcal arthritis
Define ophthalmia neonatorum
transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae into eyes of infants during birth, causing corneal damage and possibly blindness
How is ophthalmia neonatorum treated?
silver nitrate or antibiotic eyedrops
What are the three identification methods for Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
microscopy (looking for Gram(-) diplococci within neutrophils)

culture (using standard tests)

DNA (nucleic acid based test)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae pili are polymers of thousands of protein subunits called ___
PilE proteins (or pilin)
At the tip of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pili is a protein called ___
PilC
What is the function of PilC in Neisseria gonorrhoeae pili?
adhesin, mediates attachment to genitourinary epithelial cells
What is responsible for most of the symptoms of gonorrhea?
inflammatory response
Opa proteins expressed in colonies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause them to appear ___
opaque
What do Neisseria gonorrhoeae do after being ingested by epithelial cells?
They transcytose into subepithelial space, causing inflamation
Describe the Neisseria gonorrhoeae chromosome
- one complete copy of pilE
- 10-15 copies of variant-encoding pilin genes (called pilS)
- two copies of pilC (pilC1 and pilC2)
- 10+ copies of opa genes
Describe the pilS genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae chromosome
- 10-15 copies
- truncated at 5' end
- lacks a promoter region
- lacks sequences encoding N-terminal portion of the pilin protein
In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, antigenic variation occurs primarily in ___
The C-terminal region of pilin
The N-terminal region of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin is highly (conserved | variant)
conserved
How does antigenic variation occur in Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin?
homologous recombination of complete pilE gene with a pilS gene
What is the PilC protein important for in Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
proper assembly and maturation of pili
Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants lacking Opa genes are different in what way?
not engulfed by neutrophils. have been implicated with pelvic inflammatory disease.
Define phase variation
the process of turning on or off the expression of a particular gene
What are two drugs to which Neisseria gonorrhoeae is already resistant?
penicillin and tetracycline
Do people acquire immunity after infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
No
What hampers progress on the vaccine for Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
extensive antigenic variation of pilin

lack of a suitable animal model