Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hepatitis A (name, genome, envelope, transmission, chronicity)
1) Picornavirus
2) SS+ polarity RNA
3) No envelope
4) Enteric, via oral fecal
5) Not Chronic
Hepatitis B (name, genome, envelope, transmission, chronicity)
1) Hepadenavirus
2) Partially DS DNA
3) Enveloped
4) Parenternal via blood/sex contact
5) Chronic
Hepatitis C (name, genome, envelope, transmission, chronicity)
1) Flavivirus
2) SS+ polatiry RNA
3) Enveloped
4) Parenternal via blood/sex contact
5) Chronic
Hepatitis D (name, genome, envelope, transmission, chronicity)
1) Viroid
2) Circular SS- RNA
3) Enveloped
4) Parenternal via blood/sex contact
5) Chronic
Hepatitis E (name, genome, envelope, transmission, chronicity)
1) Hepevirus
2) SS+ RNA
3) No envelope
4) Enteric via oral fecal
5) Not chronic
Hepatitis A (Initial infection and replication)
1) Initially replicates in intestinal epithelium then infects liver (common in restaurant contamination)
2) Cytoplasmic RNA-RNA replication by viraly encoded polymerase. Produces a large polytprotein which is cleaved. Virions assemble in in cytoplasm and are released by cytolysis.
Hepatitis A (Disease, incubation, duration)
80% of infections asymptomatic. Almost all childhood asymptomatic.
Symptoms: Dark urine, pales feces, jaundice.
Incubation = 10-50 days. Duration = 2-4 weeks
Hepatitis A Diagnosis
Serology via detecting anti HAV IgM against marker.
Hepatitis B (Initial infection and replication)
1) Blood/sex contact in developed countries, vertical in non-developed.
2) Replicates via reverse transcription. HBV enters cell, releases DNA which goes to nucleus. Does NOT intergrate. mRNAs are transcribed and translated. mRNAs encode for an RNA genome to serve as a DNA template, i viral DNA pol, and proteins which form a cytoplasmic core. Reverse transcription occurs in cytoplasm in core. Some DNAs go back to nucleus to add more templates, some go to ER to be shipped outa cell. Viral factory, not cytolytic.
Hepatitis B (Disease, incubation, duration)
Pathology is primarily by immune system via cytotoxic T cells. Disease can be acute or chronic.
Acute: Most infections are subclinical. Symptoms similar to HAV: Dark urine, pales feces, jaundice. Incubation = 50-150 days, Duration = 2-3 months.
Chronic: 90% of neonates and 5% of adults become chronic. Variable ranging from asymptomatic for a long time to flareups of acute, to liver failure.
While DNA is not usually incorporated into host genome, can occasionally in chronic cases causing hepatocellular carcinoma.
What is the serologic indicator for a chronic HBV infection?
Continued presence of HBsAg for 6 months without detection of anti-HBs.
Hepatitis D (Infection and replication)
1) Perenternal. Absolutley dependent on co-infection w/ HBV.
2) Replicates via direct RNA-RNA in the nucleus. Both genomic and antigenomic RNAs are trimmed and circularized by ribozymes which exist within the RNAs. Encodes for 1 protein, delta antigen. Thats why needs HBV to provide surface glycoproteins to make envelope. Actual replication is HBV independent.
Hepatitis D Disease
Increases severity of HBV. Infection with HDV can trigger a chronic HBV carrier to become symptomatic. Can increase risk of carcenoma and establish chronic infections.
Hepatitis D Diagnosis
Anti delta antigen IgM
Hepatitis C Infection and Replication
1) Parenternal. Usually IV drugs, unsterilized equipment, and transfusions until the 90s. Not usually sex or vertical.
2) Cytosolic RNA-RNA replication. Virion internalized, releases genome, and translated via viral IRES. Produces a polyprotein which is cleaved host and viral proteases forming mature viral proteins. New particles are released from cell. Virion factory, not lytic.
Hepatitis C Disease
Incubation is 6-10 weeks. Disease is similar to B except is responsible for disproportionally large fraction of serious problems b/c of high rate of chronic infections (80%). A quarter of chronic people develop the bad chronic symptoms.
Hepatitis C Diagnosis
Serology via detection of anti HCV IgG. Howerer this creates a 5-6 week window between infection and detection b/c there is no IgM assay. Can also use RT-PCR but - samples can have low infectivity.
Hummoral immune system is slow and ineffective against HCV leading to low antibody titers that dont persist long after acute infection.
Hepatitis E (Infection/replication)
1) Enterically, fecal/oral
2) Cytoplasmic RNA-RNA replication
Hepatitis E Disease
Disease same as A. Infections usually asymptomatic. Incubation = 3-8 weeks.
How is HBV treated?
With neucleoside analogs and INF
How is HCV treated?
With INF