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24 Cards in this Set

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According to the video clip "Southwest Shuffle", how would you describe the culture at Southwest airlines?
unique culture created at Southwest Airlines through a mix of humor, altruism, concern for others, and straight talk.
- fun
- teamwork
- customer service/ satisfaction
- culture values taking care of customers
What is organizational culture?
Organizational culture refers to the attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by organizational members
Why is organizational culture important?
Organizational culture is important b/c it shapes the nature and quality of the work environment.
It also reinforces the mission, goals, values, priorities, and strategies of an organization
Bottom line-- why is organizational culture important?
The Bottom Line – Culture must support strategy and key outcomes.
What are the 7 Basic dimensions/elements of organizational culture?
1.Innovation - 3M, Apple, Pfizer

2.Stability - American Family, Motorola

3.Orientation Toward People – IBM, Honda

4.Results-Orientation - Nordstrom’s, GE

5.Easygoingness - Wal-Mart, Southwest

6.Attention to Detail – Disney, Ritz-Carlton

7.Collaborative Orientation – Saturn, Hewitt and Associates, Newell Rubbermaid
Video clip: Culture at Honda of America on "being"
--> Being
- culture drives everything else
- be then do; develop as a person
- empowerment; autonomy
--> control mechanism is the being
What are the 5 ways in which organizational culture is created?
1.Company Founders (and their successes and failures)
2.Strategic Plan of the Organization
3.Organizational Structure
4.Employees (and their daily interactions)
5.Reward Systems
What are the 5 tools for transmitting culture?
1.Symbols – Parking lots, dress codes, employee handbooks,interior design of offices and facilities, logos

2.Stories – Sam Walton, Akio Morita, Walt Disney

3.Jargon – “scope creep,” “sync up,” “WIIFM”

4.Ceremonies – McDonald’s, Mary Kay Cosmetics

5.Statements of Principle – Tyco, Levi Strauss, Target
Examples:Integrity,Excellence,Teamwork,Accountability,The Strength of Many, Equality of Employment
Video Clip on Japanese Hell camps
find out
What are the 11 Strategies for Effectively Changing Organizational Culture?
- Prepare for the long haul.
- Conduct a culture audit.
- Create a clear picture of what you want the culture to become.
- Communicate your decision to all employees.
- Change your behavior to show that are a champion of the new culture.
- Recruit new employees who fit the new culture and will help develop it.
- Retrain or terminate defenders of the status quo.
- Make sure that your reward system supports the new culture.
- Modify the mission and operating values of the organization to support the new culture.
- Educate new employees about the culture of the organization.
- Use formal ceremonies and success stories to reinforce the culture with existing employees
According to the text, what are the 7 functions of organizational culture?
1. Justification of behavior
2. Enhanced cooperation
3. Improved decision making
4. Enhanced control
5. Improved communication
6. Enhanced commitment
7. Encourage shared perceptions
According to the text, what are the 6 elements of organizational culture?
1. Rites
2. Rituals
3. Values
4. Symbols
5. Narratives
6. Heroes
Organizational values
Organizational values are beliefs held by an individual or group that speak to the actions and ends that organizations “ought to” or “should” pursue.
Organizational symbols
Symbols are things that stand for or suggest something else.
As examples:
- office assignments signal status
- dress codes suggest the level of formality
- logos can influence customer and employee perceptions
- an action can be symbolic, as in the case of the “Lambeau Leap”
What are 4 forms of narratives?
- Stories: dramatize relatively ordinary, everyday events within organizations in order to convey important cultural meanings.
- Legends: are more uplifting than stories and portray events that defy explanation by ordinary circumstances.
- Myths: are dramatic, unquestioned narratives about imagined events.
- Sagas: describe heroic exploits performed in the face of adversity.
What are 3 recurring Story Themes?
1. Equality. These recognize that members must deal with status inequalities in organizations.
2. Security. These recognize that members desire security, but that organizations can threaten their security.
3. Control. These recognize tensions between members’ desire to control events and their realization that they can’t always do so.
Describe the hero element of organizational culture
- Heroes are company role models. In their performance of deeds, embodiment of character, and support of the existing organizational culture, they highlight the values a company wishes to reinforce.
- Heroes are the main characters in the stories relayed throughout an organization.
Describe 'rites' in organizational culture
Rites combine cultural forms into a public performance.
Some forms of rites include:
- Rites of Passage
(completion of Army basic training)
- Rites of Enhancement
(awards ceremony)
- Rites of Integration
(company Christmas party)
Describe rituals in organizational culture
Rituals are relatively simple combinations of repetitive behaviors, often carried out without much thought, and often brief in duration.

For example:
- how members greet one another
- how visitors are met at airports
- who eats where and with whom
- how a phone conversation should proceed

Rituals are often more important for their expressive, emotional consequences than for more practical reasons
what are the 4 views on how organizational culture affects performance/ effectiveness?
1. Particular cultural characteristics
2. "Healthy" culture
3. "Strong" culture
4. Strategically appropriate culture
The book "In Search of Excellence" studies the relationship b/w organizational culture and effectiveness. Based on the observation of 62 successful firms, what are the 8 key attributes of organizational culture that contribute to success?
1. A bias for action
2. Closeness to the customer
3. Autonomy and entrepreneurship
4. Productivity through people
5. Hands-on, value-driven
6. Stick to the knitting (stay close to business they know)(single product vs. diverse)
7. Simple form, lean staff (simple structure)
8. Simultaneous loose-tight properties
(both centralized and decentralized; centralized in core valuse and decentralized in innovation and creativity)
ID the 6 steps in the Bottom Line Process model for Developing an effective organizational culture
1. Develop a mission statement for the firm
2. Formulate strategic objectives to support the mission
3. ID the core values and operating principles that support the mission and strategic objectives
4. Develop formal mechanisms for communicating the elements of the culture to employees
5. Hire new employees who are compatible with the firm's culture
6. Socialize new employees into the culture of the firm
ID the 7 guidelines for culture change
Guidelines for Culture Change
- Understand the current culture.
- Change at the right time.
- Value diversity.
- Understand resistance to culture change.
- Recognize the importance of implementation.
- Use appropriate cultural forms.
- Give it some time.
ID the 6 steps in the Bottom Line Process model for changing the culture of an organization
1. Define the elements of the new culture
2. Communicate the new culture to employees
3. Realign the organizational policies to support the new culture
4. use formal mechanisms to reinforce and transmit the new culture
5. Replace managers and employees who do not embrace the new culture
6. Evaluate the culture of the firm in relation to the firm's mission.