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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 basic components of Motivation?
1) Intensity- the amount of desire generated
2) Direction- how intensity is channeled

--> Motivation drives job performance
What are the 4 elements of the FISH! Philosophy?
1) Play
2) Choose your Attitude
3) Make their day
4) Be There
Why is Maslow's Hierarchy of needs important to managers?
-It helps them to identify which needs are unsatisfied according to their employees
-managers can them come up with different strategies to satisfy needs in order to motivate employees
What are the 5 needs according to Maslow?
1) Physiological and survival
2) Safety and Security
3) Social
4) Ego and Esteem
5) Self-Actualization
What are the Organizational specific factors for the Physiological and survival needs?
1) Heat and air conditioning
2) Base Salary
3) Cafeteria
4) Working Conditions
What are the general factors for Physiological and survival needs?
1) Air
2) food
3) shelter
4) sex
What are the general factors for safety and security needs?
1. safety
2. security
3. competence
4. stability
What are the organizational specific factors for safety and security?
1. safe working conditions
2. fringe benefits
3. general salary increases
4. job security
What are the general factors for the socail need?
1. companionship
2. affection
3. friendship
What are the organizational specific factors for social needs?
1. Quality supervision
2. compatible work group
3. professional friendships
General factors for ego and esteem needs
1. recognition
2. status
3. self-esteem
4. self-respect
Organizational specific factors for ego and esteem needs
1. job title
2. merit pay increase
3. peer/supervisory recognition
4. work itself
5. responsibility
General Factors of Self-actualization
1. growth
2. achievement
3. advancement
Organizational specific factors for self-actualization needs
1. Chanllenging job
2. Creativity
3. advancement in organization
4. achievement in work
What are the 4 Practical implications of the Content Theories of Motivation?
1. Assess employee needs and identify those that are most active.
2. develop and implement appropriate strategies to enable employees to satisfy their active needs.
3. use a variety of strategies to satisfy employee needs
4. Conduct regular evaluations of your strategies for satisfying active employee needs.
Reinforcement theories of Motivation
-learning is the process through which people acquire new behavior

-the law of effect--> states that people learn (or unlearn) behavior based on the consequences that result from that behavior
What is the Operant Conditioning Process?
Stimulus--> Response--> Consequence


Antecedent-->Behavior--> Outcome
Stimulus =?


Stimulus= a signal, cue or specific context

Response= the behavior that you want to change

Consequence= outcomes that occur based on the behavior
What is positive reinforcement?
positive behavior is reinforced by a positive consequence
What is negative reinforcement?
When one responds positively to a negative situation (neg stimulus)the negative stimulus is removed

By making the most out of the negative situation, it becomes a positive one
What is avoidance learning?
it is a preventative measure; used to avoid bad/prob situations

positive stimulus, positive response, avoidance of a negative consequence- makes it a positive situation all around
What are the 6 guidelines for increasing desired employee behavior?
1. make sure that you understand the
S-R-C linkage
2. Make sure the consiquence is positively valued by employee
3. link positive consequences w/ the desired behavior more frequently to facilitate acquisition of the behavior
4. vary the frequency of using positive consequences to maintain the desired behavior (reward occasionally)
5. Vary the type of positive consequences used
6. Watch the costs associated with administering your positive consequences. (reward doesn't need to be extravagent)
What is the difference between punishment and non-reinforcement?
Punishment= application of a negative consequence
-could strain relationship w/ manager
Non-Reinforcement= no positive consequence
-less confrontational
-1st alternative to punishment
What are the 5 guidelines for Eliminating Undesired Employee Behaviors?
1. Make sure that you understand the S-R-C linkage (
2. make sure that the consequence is negatively valued by the employee
3. make sure to explain the desired behavior to the employee. (eliminate the knowing doing gap)
4. be aware of other negative consequences that may result from the use of punishment
5. Use punishment only when there is a real need to do so.
What is the S-R-C linkage?
stimulu-> Response-> Consequence

what is the behavior, why did it occur, and what is the consequence
How does Locke and Latham's Theory motivate people?
it motivates people by goal setting
What are the 4 Characteristics of goal setting according to Locke and Latham?
1. Goal Difficulty
2. Goal Specificity
3. Goal Acceptence
4. Goal Commitment
What do they mean by goal difficulty and goal acceptance?
goal difficulty
- goal should be challenging
goal specificity
- goal needs to be measurable
What is meant by goal acceptance and goal commitment?
goal acceptance
- accept ownership of goal
- allow for participation in setting/defining goals

goal commitment
-willing to spend time and effort
-intensity effort of motivation
What are the managerial/practical implications of Locke and Latham's goal setting theory?
1. set "good" goals
2. provide support- training, resources etc.
3. link appropriate outcomes to goal achievement. (operant learning theory)
According to Adam's Equity Theory, what is the concept of equity?

and what was done in class to demonstrate this?
- the outcome/input ratio

-the Comparison other

class demonstration w/ latham
According to Adam's Equity Theory, what are the 3 motivations resulting from equity outcomes?
1. Equitable Payment
2. Underpayment Inequity
3. Overpayment Inequity
what is equitable payment?
We perceive what we get is fair for what we put into it
what is underpayment inequity?
"what I'm getting for what I'm doing is significantly less compared to others." (e.g. playing favorites)

--> people are very quick to perceive they are being ripped off
What is Overpayment inequity?
When the oucome is extremely high compared to the input

- has to be really high in order to feel guilty about it.
- people motivated to change behavior to acheive equity
-might work- harder to justify output
What are the managerial/practical implications of the Equity Theory?
- monitor and manage employee perceptions of equity with the objective of acheiving perceived payment equity
- assess employee equity perceptions on a regular basis and strive to acheive and sustain perceived equity in work-related inputs and outcomes
What are the 6 steps of The Bottom Line: Equity Theory?
1. ASSESS employee perceptions of equity in their work situations
2. ID employees who perceive inequities
3. ID the basis for employee perceptions of inequity
4. EVALUATE management policies and practices to determine the validity of employee perceptions
5. ID specific changes that can be made to ADDRESS employee equity CONCERNS
6. IMPLEMENT CHANGES and communicate them to employees
What are the 3 Need (or Content) Theories?
1. Maslow's Need Hierarchy
2. Alderfer's ERG Theory
3. McClelland's Manifest Needs
According to the text, what are the 5 steps in The Need Satisfaction Process?
2. SEARCH for Potential need-satisfying goal
3. PERCEPTION of potential need-satisfying goal
5. Goal Attainment or Frustration
Describe Alderfer's sets of needs (ERG)
1. Existence -- all forms of material and physical desires
2. Relatedness -- all needs involving relationships w/ significant other persons
3. Growth -- All needs involving a person making creative and productive efforts on the self and the environment
According to Alderfer's ERG Theory, when is one experiencing satisfacion progression?
When the order of needs goes from

Existence Needs to
Relatedness Needs to
Growth Needs
According to Alderfer's ERG Theory, when is one experiencing frustration regression?
when the order of needs goes from

Growth Needs to
Relatedness Needs to
Existance Needs
4 Differences Between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory
1. Alderfer collapses Maslow’s 5 levels into 3
2. Alderfer says growth need strength is POSITIVELY related to growth need satisfaction
3. Alderfer sees a hierarchy only in terms of increasing abstractness
4. Alderfer recognizes frustration regression as well as satisfaction progression
What are McClelland’s 3 Manifest Needs?
1. Need for Achievement: The need to do well no matter what goal is pursued.
2. Need for Affiliation: The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people.
3. Need for Power: The desire to control other people, to influence their behavior, and to be responsible for them.
What are the 8 implications of need theories?
-Different people have diff needs structures as well as diff needs that may be salient at a given time.
-While satisfaction occurs when needs are met, motivation flows from lack of satisfaction.
-A reward may satisfy multiple needs.
-Needs appear to form 2 or 3 clusters.
-While most people 1st focus on existence needs when those needs are not satisfied, it is not possible to say which needs will next become most important.
-Both satisfaction progression and frustration regression are important.
-The top cluster of needs, sometimes called growth needs, behave differently from others.
-It may be possible to develop people’s needs.
What are the 4 Process Theories?
1. Learning Theory
2. Goal Setting Theory
3. Equity Theory
4. Expectancy Theory
What are the 3 types of learning?
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
3. Social Learning
What are the 3 strategies for arranging contingencies to increase desired behaviors?
1. Positive Reinforcement
2. Negative Reinforcement
3. Avoidance Learning
What are the 2 strategies for arranging contingencies to decrease undesired behaviors?
1. Nonreinforcement (extinction)
2. Punishment
Define the 4 types of schedules of reinforcement and characteristics associated with them.
-Continuous reinforcement: every instance of the target behavior is reinforced
-Fixed-interval: a reinforcer is provided at fixed time intervals (e.g., weekly paycheck)
-Variable-interval: a reinforcer is administered randomly around some average interval (e.g., four pop quizzes during semester)
-Fixed-ratio: A reinforcer is provided after every n responses (e.g., bonus for every ten units sold)
-Variable-ratio: A reinforcer is administered on average every n responses (e.g., payoff on slot machine on average of once every ten pulls of handle)
What are the 4 desired properites of reinforcement schedules?
1. Rapid Learning. The schedule should quickly teach desired behaviors.
2. High Response Rate. The schedule should have high “bang for the buck” (that is, high levels of motivation at a relatively low cost).
3. High Response Stability. The schedule should encourage engaging in desired behaviors on a regular basis.
4. Low Extinction Rate. The schedule should ensure that, once a behavior is learned, it will be maintained even if reinforcement is temporarily stopped.
Identify and discuss the practical guidelines for effectively using learning techniques in organizations (7)
- Don’t give the same reward to all.
- Recognize that failure to respond has reinforcing consequences.
- Tell a person what behavior gets reinforced.
- Tell a person what he or she is doing wrong.
- Don’t punish in front of others.
- Make the consequences equal to the behavior.
- Reinforce behaviors as soon as possible.
Identigy and describe the 7 steps in the Bottom Line Process Model for Organizational Behavior Modification (OBM)
1. ID target behavior
2. OBTAIN baseline MEASURE of target behavior
3. DEFINE criterion LEVEL of target behavior
4. ID appropriate REINFORCEMENT(S)
5. ID appropriate SCHEDULE of reinforcement
6. IMPLEMENT the plan
7. EVALUATE the plan (ASSESS LEVELS of target behavior against Criterion)
Define management by objectives (MBO)
Management by objectives (MBO) is a motivational technique in which the manager and employee work together to set employee goals.
What are some of teh key goal setting principles used in MBO?
MBO combines many key goal setting principles, including:
setting of specific goals, participation in goal setting, and feedback on performance.
Identify and discuss the 5 steps in the Bottom Line Process Model for Goal Setting
1. Use EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION to SET difficult and specific GOALS
2. ENSURE that the employee UNDERSTANDS the goals and is COMMITTED to acheiving them.
3. PROVIDE management SUPPORT (including FEEDBACK) for acheivement of employee goals
4. ASSESS employee job PERFORMANCE against goals
ID and discuss the 5 steps in the Bottom Line Process Model for Expectancy Theory
1. ID desired LEVEL of employee MOTIVATION
2. PROVIDE training, direction and opportunities to succeed to ENHANCE employee's BELIEF that he/she can achieve high job performance
3. PROMOTE employee's belief that job PERFORMANCE MATTERS by using appropriate REWARD policies and practices
4. USE Oraganizational REWARD systems and job design to LINK + valued job performance in an EQUITABLE manner
5. PROMOTE managerial SUPPORT to ENSURE that employee MOTIVATION RESULTS in high job PERFORMANCE
What are some of the policies and practices used by organizations in an attempt to manage workforce diversity effectively?
1. Training for tolerance- gender training etc.
2. Rewarding diversity efforts- some firms are tying performance appraisal to their efforts to increase diversity.
3. Changing employee attitudes toward diversity- awareness workshops and seminars, resource groups, cross-functional teams
4. Developing Personnel Policies
ID and describe the 9 steps in the Bottom Line Process Model for Developing A Diversity Program
1. OBTAIN SUPPORT of top management
2. DEVELOP a DEFINITION of what diversity means in the organization
3. ID specific OBJECTIVES for the diversity program
4. DEVELOP the ELEMENTS of the program that SUPPORT diversity GOALS
5. ID MEASURES of the diversity program's EFFECTIVENESS
6. EDUCATE ALL employees regarding the diversity program
7. IMPLEMENT the diversity program
8. EVALUATE the diversity program and MODIFY as needed
9. FOSTER a CULTURE that SUPPORTS the diversity program
What are the 10 key personality dimensions?
1. Risk-Taking Propensity
2. Proactive Personality
3. Authoritarianism
4. Dogmatism
5. Locus of Control
6. Tolerance for Ambiguity
7. Machiavellianism
8. Self-Monitoring
9. Type A and Type B
10. The "Big 5"
People differ markedly in their Risk-Taking Propensity. What are 2 examples/ways?
some are:
Risk averse: they like to play it safe, choosing alternatives that are likely to give a relatively low but certain return
risk seekers: like to gamble. They prefer alternatives that may turn out very well or very poorly; make fast decisions based on relatively little info
What is proactivity?
the extent to which people take actions to influence their environments
Describe a proactive individual
-they look for opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until able to bring about change
-engage in high levels of entrepreneurial activities
-have relatively high levels of job performance
-highly valued by employers
How do authoritarian individs view power, status and authority?
-believe power and status should be clearly defined and there should be a hierarchy of authority.
-authority in the hands of a few leaders and should be obeyed.
-as leaders, expect unquestioning obedience to their commands.
-subordinates willingly give obedience.
-are likely to be comfortable in organizations that emphasize rules and the chain of command.
Describe Dogmatic Individuals
-rigid belief systems and
-“doggedly” stick to their opinions, refusing to revise even when conflicting evidence.
-make decisions quickly, based on relatively little info, and are confident in their decisions.
-like to follow the rules and are unlikely to consider novel alternatives.
-may perform acceptably in well-defined, routine situations, but do poorly in situations requiring creativity.
Locus of control is an indicator of an individual’s sense of control over the environment and external events.
Describe difference b/w people w/ internal and those w/ external locus of control.
-A person with an external locus of control feels controlled by fate, chance, and circumstance.
-A person with an internal locus of control feels in control of his or her life.
Internals are generally more highly motivated than externals.
internal Leaders tend to choose more innovative strategies and to be more proactive and future oriented.
Since managers are increasingly facing dynamic, unstructured situations, tolerance for ambiguity is clearly an important characteristic.
Describe how people low and high tolerances view situations differently?
Individuals with high tolerance for ambiguity welcome uncertainty and change.
Those with low tolerance for ambiguity see such situations as threatening and uncomfortable.
-think any behavior is acceptable if it achieves their goals
-try to manipulate others
-are unemotional and detached
-“look out for Number One”
-aren’t likely to be good team players
-are relatively likely to be unethical
-Machiavelli’s name to become synonymous with self-serving, manipulative, deceitful behavior.
Self-monitoring is a person’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
Describe High Self-monitors
High self-monitors:
-are very sensitive to external cues and are “chameleon-like.”
-can present striking contradictions between their public and private lives -- are capable of “disguise.”
-are effective in “boundary role” situations and other situations requiring multiple “faces.”
-are more likely to assume leadership roles than low self-monitors
Describe Type A individuals
Type A individuals:
-feel great time pressure and impatience.
-work aggressively, speak explosively, and find themselves constantly struggling.
-are much more likely than Type B’s to experience high stress levels and associated symptoms, including coronary heart disease.
-have trouble delegating responsibility to others, don’t work well in groups, and are impatient with tasks requiring prolonged problem solving.
-Relatively few Type A’s rise to high levels in organizations.
Describe the type B individual
Type B individuals show the opposite pattern -- relaxed, steady-paced, and easygoing
What are the 5 characteristics in the "big 5" model?
-Extraversion: Sociable, talkative, assertive
-Agreeableness: Good-natured, cooperative, trusting
-Conscientiousness: Responsible, dependable, persistent, achievement oriented
-Emotional Stability: Calm, enthusiastic, secure
-Openness to Experience: Imaginative, artistically sensitive, intellectual
Describe The "big 5" and performance
-Extraverts tend to take on leadership roles.
-Agreeableness is especially significant in careers where teamwork or customer service is important.
-Conscientious individuals have high levels of job performance.
-Openness to experience is related to performance in training programs.
ID and describe the 5 steps in the Bottom Line process model for managing cultural differences.
1. DEVELOP an UNDERSTANDING of the cultural beliefs and practices of others
3. DEMONSTRATE RESPECT for cross-cultural differences in employees
4. Be SENSITIVE to how others may have DIFFERING INTERPRETATIONS of your statements and actions
5. DISCUSS MISUNDERSTANDINGS or CONFLICTS that occur due to cross-cultural differences in order to ENHANCE MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING
ID and define the 6 steps in the bottome line process model for Increasing Perceptual Accuracy
1. TALK to ALL parties involved in the situation INDIVIDUALLY- EMPHASIZE obtaining objective info
3. BE AWARE of your own BIASES and assumptions in trying to understand the situation
4. DEVELOP an understanding of others' perspectives and views
5. FORMULATE your OVERALL view of the situation
6. MEET with the parties involved as a GROUP to DEVELOP a MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING of the issues at hand
Define job satisfaction
-the affective component of work-related attitudes.
-it is how employees feel about their jobs.
-Managers may be concerned about employees’ satisfaction with specific facets of the job, as well as about their overall job satisfaction.
What are the 2 primary views of the determinants of job satisfaction?
situational and dispositional
How does the situational perspective view satisfaction?
-sees satisfaction as largely due to things in the environment of the employee, such as the nature of the job, reward system and supervision. If this view is correct, it may be possible to influence satisfaction levels by changing such things.
How does the dispositional perspective view satisfaction?
The dispositional perspective sees satisfaction as due to individual factors -- some people are simply more satisfied in general than are others -- and thus as relatively stable and more difficult to change. If this view is valid, varying the situation may have little impact on satisfaction.
What are the situational determinants of satisfaction?
Situational Determinants of Satisfaction
Many work-related factors influence job satisfaction
-equitable rewards
-work itself: challenge, physical demands, personal interest
-working conditions: physical, goal attainment
-others in the organization:such as the supervisor
-fringe benefits
What are the Dispositional Determinants of Satisfaction?
-A direct approach is to measure the degree to which people seem to be generally positive or negative in their outlooks.
-These are called positive affectivity and negative affectivity.
-also supported by studies that follow people as they move across jobs through their lives;
-Another approach is to view identical twins reared apart.-identical twins reared apart have considerable similarity in satisfaction levels despite different jobs.
Discuss the relationship b/w attitudes and behaviors.
-weak links between attitudes and behaviors.
-a person’s behavior depends on many things beyond attitude
-In general, attitudes will best predict behaviors when:
The attitude is specific to the behavior.
The attitude is potent.
The attitude is salient (more noticeable/prominent in our attention).
The behavior is not constrained or subject to other influences.
What are the 4 elements of the PDCA cycle?
1. Plan
2. Do
3. Check
4. Act
Discuss the plan element of the PDCA Cycle
-DEFINE purposes and goals
-DEVELOP theory
-DEFINE measures of success
-PLAN activities
Discuss the DO element of the PDCA Cycle
-UNDERTAKE activities
-introduce introventions
-APPLY best KNOWLEDGE in pursuit of desired purpose and goals
Discuss the "Check" element of the PDCA Cycle
-MONITOR outcomes
-STUDY RESULTS for signs of progress or enexpected outcomes
-SEARCH for new lessons to learn and new problems to solve
Discuss the "act" element of the PDCA cycle
-INTEGRATE lessons learned
-ADJUST methods
-LEARN MORE about what needs to be learned
What are heuristics?
are devices we use- often w/out knowing it- to simplify decision making
-they are simply rules of thumb
What are the 4 basic types of heuristics?
1. Satisficing
2. Representativeness
3. Availability
4. Anchoring and adjustment
What does satisficing mean?
-a type of heuristic
-means choosing the first acceptable alternative
-when faced w/ a great deal of info, we may simply ignore most of the info and focus on just 2 or 3 attributes
What does Representativeness?
Representativeness is the tendency to place something in a class if it seems representative of the class.
What is the heuristic "availablity"?
Availability is the tendency to estimate the probability of an event based on how easy it is to recall instances of the event.
What is anchoring and adjustment?
Anchoring and adjustment is the tendency to use an early bit of information as an anchor and then use new information to adjust from that initial anchor.
What are the 8 guidelines for improving problem solving?
1. Be aware of barriers
2. Learn more about your characteristics as a prob solver
3. Pay attention to all stages of the prob-solv-process
4. Work to attain complete and accurate info
5. Employ Creativity enhancement techniques
6. Consider using computers as an aid
7. Use systematic tools for evaluation and choice
8. Consider using a group problem-solving process
What are the 6 basic types of creativity enhancement techniques?
1. Gordon Technique
2. Synectics
3. Idea Checklists
4. Attribute listing
5. checkerboard method
6. Retroduction
Describe the Gordon Technique
-The Gordon Technique is used to avoid people taking an available alternative and improving it bit by bit.
-initial focus on function.
ie rather than being told to build a better mousetrap, the group might first be told that the focus was capturing.
Synectics means “the joining together of apparently unrelated elements.”
Synectics relies heavily on use of analogies, including:
-Direct analogy: involves looking at parallel facts, knowledge, or technology in a different domain from the one being worked on.
-personal analogy: members try to ID psychologically w/ key parts of the prob
-Fantasy analogy: asks, “How in my wildest dreams can I make this happen?”
-Synectics also includes a full structured problem-solving sequence.
Idea checklists
Idea checklists involve asking a series of questions about how we might use something that we already have.
ex:checklist of idea-spurring ques called SCAMPER, for:
Modify or magnify?
Put to other uses?
Eliminate or reduce?
Reverse or rearrange?
According to the developer of attribute listing, “Each time we take a step we do it by changing an attribute or a quality of something, or else by applying that same quality or attribute to some other thing.”
What are the 2 forms of attribute listing?
-attribute modifying: main attributes of the prob object are listed. Then, ways to improve each attribute listed.
-Attribute transferring: similar to direct analogy in synectics; attributes from one thing are transferred to another.
The checkerboard method, also called morphological analysis, is an extension of attribute modifying.
How is it different/an extension? Why is it benefitial?
-Specific ideas for 2 attribute or problem dimensions are listed along 2 diff axis of a matrix.
-The cells of the matrix then provide idea combinations.
-->The benefit of the method is that it makes us aware of all possible combinations of the attributes.
We are all slaves of our assumptions; they dictate the way we behave.
What is the purpose of Retroduction?
Retroduction involves changing an assumption. This may serve two purposes:
-our assumptions may be wrong
-even if our assumptions are correct, we may gain valuable new perspectives from looking at things from a diff angle
-1 retroduction technique says, “Suppose X were Y”
-Another asks “What if?”
What are the 10 characterictics of a creative organization?
1. Stable, secure internal environment
2. Open channels of communication
3. Encouragement of outside contacts
4. Idea units freed of other responsibilities
5. Heterogeneous personnel policy
6. Investment in basic research
7. Decentralized, diversified
8. Risk-Taking Ethos
9. Not run as a "Tight Ship"
10. Separation of creative from productive functions
What are the 5 strategies for negotiating?
1. Forcing
2. Avoiding
3. Compromising
4. Accomodating
5. Collaborating
Describe the forcing strategie for negotiating
-the negotiator is assertive
-attempting to satisfy his or her own needs at the expense of the other party
Describe the avoiding strategy for negotiating
-negotiator not assertive
-is not cooperative
-is neglecting the interests of both parties by attempting to sidestep the conflict or put off making a decision.
Discuss the compromising strategy for negotiating
-is moderately assertive
-is moderately cooperative
-is not fully satisfying the needs of either party.
Discuss the Accomidating strategy for negotiating
-is cooperative
-is not assertive
-is satisfying the other party’s needs while neglecting their own.
Discuss the collaborating strategy for negotiating
-is cooperative
-is assertive
-this is the “win-win” style.
Discuss the 10 strategies for attaining win-win solutions
-Think win-win.
-Plan for the negotiations.
-Know your BATNA.
-Work to understand the other party.
-Focus on a common objective and depersonalize the problem.
-Negotiate from interests, not positions.
-Build on differences.
-Work to control emotions.
-Use active listening.
-Be creative.
What does BATNA mean?
“Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement,”
-it is important that you know your BATNA if you want to attain a win-win solution
-your BATNA determines the reservation point, the point at which we are indifferent between a negotiated agreement and an impasse.
What are the 5 strategies for achieving integrative agreements.
-Obtaining added resources
-Providing nonspecific compensation
-Trading issues
-Cost cutting