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43 Cards in this Set

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What is step 1 of lewin's change proces model?
unfreezing - create high felt need for change and minimize resistance to change
what is step 2 of lewin's change process model?
changing - change people, tasks, and structure. encourage ongoing support
what is step 3 of lewin's change process model?
refreezing - reinforce outcomes and constructive modification
what is structural change?
altering a firm's formal authority structure or job definitinons
what are sources of resistance to change?
self interest, uncertainty, lack of understanding and trust, differing perceptions, and lack of tolerance for change
what is logos?
convincing another person to accept a change through reason, logic, and data
what is ethos?
convincing another to change through the strength of your moral character and the trust that followers have in you
what is pathos?
convincing another to change through appeals to your target audience's emotional and phychological needs
what are catalytic mechanisms?
help translate objectives into performance by making stretch goals reachable.
what does the rhetorical triangle consist of?
logos, pathos, and ethos
what are ways to use logos?
do your homework, identify sources of help, anticipate questions and objections, sell the benefits, use catalytic mechanisms, listen in depth, and create an implementation plan
what is the six step process to overcoming resistance to change?
(1)identify potential sources of worker resistance to change (2)involve workers in the design of the change (3)develop and implement a communications plan for educating workers (4)provide support for workers implementing change (5)offer rewards to workers for successfully implementing change (6)reinforce the change by realigning jobs, processes, systems, and the culture of the organization with change
when to use education and communication?
use edu and com when resistance to change is due to a lack of info or inaccurate info and analysis
when to use participation and involvement?
use when the initiators of change dont have all the info to design change, and others have considerable power to resist
when to use facilitation and support?
use when people are resisting change b/c of fear or adjustment problems
when to use negotiation and agreement?
use when someone or some group will clearly lose out in the change and that party has considerable power to resist
when to use manipulation and co-optation?
use when other tactics wont work or are too expensive
when to use coercion?
use when the initiator of change has power and change must occur quickly
what are rites of degradation?
ridiculing or demeaning the past using scapegoats
how is organizational development defined?
an effort planned, organization wide, managed from the top, used to increase org effectiveness, and health through planned interventions into the orgs process using behavioral science knowledge
OD assumptions of individuals
(1) people in the org seek to satisfy higher needs, such as personal development and growth (2) people desire to make a contribution to the org (3) people have desire and potential to contribute to the org
OD approaches seek to overcome org barriers that discourage members from ____ _____ ______ and ____ __ _________ to the org.
(1)satisfying higher needs (2)making a contribution
OD - people as group members
assumes the nature of group relationships will determine the satisfaction and contribution of the individual members of the group.
OD - group members need to feel _____.
acceptance
OD- the group needs to generate _____, _______, and _________ among the members
trust; support; cooperation
OD - people as members of the org
organizational structures have an impact on members attitudes and behavior
OD - ___-____ strategies conflict strategies are not healthy in an organization
win-lose
what is a change agent?
usually an individual outside the organization who intervenes to start the process of organizational development
what are the steps in the OD process?
(1) identify a need for change (2) select a technique for change (3) gather top management support (4) overcome resistance to change (5) evaluate the change process
what are some intervention techniques that the OD process uses?
diagnostice techniques, team building, survey feedback, education, intergoup activities, third party peacemaking, sociotechnical activities, process consultation, life and career planning, coaching, and planning and goal setting
OD - communication from top management should ______ ___ _____, _______, and _______ _______ of the change effort.
identify the goals, purpose, and expected results
OD - measures of the effectiveness of the program can be established through _______ of _________, ________ with ________ and ______________, and ________ of _________ ____ to determine whether the change process achieved its goal
observation of activities, discussions with participants and nonparticipants, and collection of performance data
Conditions necessary for OD programs to succeed:
recognition of problems by managers and workers, use of an external change agent, supoort from top management, involvement of work group leaders, early success, understanding the process and its goals, support of managerial strengths, inclusion of HR managers, development of internal OD resources, effective management of the process, measurement and evaluation
What are the five disciplines of learning organizations
(1) Personal Mastery (2) Mental Models (3) Shared Vision (4) Team Learning (5) Systems Thinking
what is personal mastery?
formulating a coherent picture of results that people most desire (personal vision) w/ a realisitic assessment of their current reality
what are mental models?
being aware of personal attitudes and perceptions
what is a shared vision?
building a common sense of purpose
what is team learning?
reflecting on action as a team and transforming collective thinking skills
systems thinking
understanding the language of interrelationships that shape behavior
where does creative tension come from?
recognizing the gap between where we want to by- our "vision" and the truth about where we are - our "current reality"
learning leaders need to help others ___ ___ ___ _______
see the big picture
Developing Learning Organizations you need 4 things:
Learning leaders; leadership communities; learning infrastructures; learning cultures
what are the five steps to developing a learning organization?
(1) leaders generate creative tension (2) leaders provide support to create learning communities (3) leaders create and establish formal systems (4) leaders model behaviors to establish learning culture (5) leaders evaluate performance