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46 Cards in this Set

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The process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment
The process of being guided and directed by a leader in the work environment
John Kotter
Individual who argeed that leadership and management are two distinct, yet complemtary, systmes of action in organizations
What does leadership do?
produces useful change in organizations, creates uncertainity and change
What does management do?
reduces uncertainty and stabilizes, controls complexity, maintain the status quo
Kotter: Actions of good managers
planning and budgeting
organizing and staffing
controlling and problem solving
Kotter: Actions of good leaders
Setting a direction for the organization
aligning people with that direction
motivating people to action through empowerment and gratification
Strategic leader
both a manager and a leader
displays both the stabiltiy of managers and the visionary abilites of leaders
Trait Theories and Leadership
Leadership theories that are very indecisive and contradictory
Trait Theories
Theories that attempted to determine leaders by common traits
Behavior Theories
Theories that attempted to determine leaders by common behaviors
Kurt Lewin
Individual who identified 3 basic styles of leadership. Behavior Thoery
Lewin Stuides
Lewin's 3 leadership styles


Autocratic style
Style of leadership in which the leader uses strong, directivem, controlling actions to enforce teh rules, regulations, activies, and relationships in the work environment
Democratic style
A style of leadership in which the leader takes collaborative, responsive, interactive actions with followers concernt the work and work environment
Laizzez-faire style
A stle of leadership in which the leader fails to accept teh responsiblites of the position.

Leading with leadership
Ohio State Studies:

2 types of leader behvior
Initiating Structure


These to are indepenedent of each other - can be high in one and low in other, or low or high in both
Initiating structure
Ohio State Studies

Leader behavior aimed at defining and organizing work relationhips and roles, as well as establisng clear patterns of organization, communication, and ways of getting things done
Ohio State Studies

Leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relationships, as well as encouraging mutal trust and interpsersonal respect within the work unit
Michigan Studies

2 styles of leadership
production-orienated style

employee-orienated style

leader's style has implications for the emotional atmosphere of the work environment, adnd thus the followers under the leader
Production-orienated style
work envirnment characters by constant influence by the leader

focus on getting work done
Employee-orienated style
leader has less direct supervision

Focus is on people and relationships
What are the three behavioral theories?
Lewin Stuides
Ohio State Stuides
Michigan Studies
How do the thee behavioral theories interlock?
two basic leadership stlyes identified

Task focused and people focused
Task focused examples
autocratic, production orientated, initiating structure
People focused examples
democratic, employee orientated, consideration
Contingency Theory
If..... then... theory
Four Contingency Theories
Path-Goal Theory
Normative Decision Theory
Situational Leaderhsip Theory
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Fit between the leader style and stiuation. Says that leaders are either task orienated or relationship orientated depending on leader's primary need gratification
Fiedler's Contingnecy Theory

3 ways in which a situation is deteermined favororable or unfavorable
1) leader-member relationship
2) task-structure
3) postion power of the leader
Fiedler's Contingency Theory

How to determine if a leader is task-orienated or people orienated
LPC Scale

describe least perferred coworker in postive terms, relationship - oreinated
Fiedler's Contingency Theory

High LPC
describe least perferred coworker in postive terms

relationship - orientated
Fiedler's Contingency Theory

describe lease perferred coworker in negative terms

task - orientated
Fiedler's Contingency Theory

Def: Task Structure
the decrate of clarity, or ambiguity, in the work actives assigned to the group
Fiedler's Contingency Theory

Def: Position Power
The authority associted with the leader's FORMAL position in the organization
Fiedler's Contingency Theory

Def: Leader-Member Relations
The quality of interpersonal relationships amoung a leader and the group members
Application of
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Low and high LPC leaders are effective if placed in the right situations. If the situations are incorrect, then the situation must change because the leader is unlikely to change
Path-Goal Theory
Leader is to clear the follower's path to teh goal using the most approate out of four leader behavior styles.

Assumes that leaders adapt their behavior and style
Page 266
Normative Decision Model
Helps decide if/when to include employes in making decisions.

The leaders should use the decision mathod most correct for a decision situation
page 267
The Situational Leadership Model
leader behavior should be adjusted to the readiness of the followers.

Hersey and Blachard (also LDP)
pg 268

Leader-Member Exchange

Leaders may form different relationships with different followers, thus forming an in-group and an out-group
LMX Exchange

In-group characteristics
members more similiar to the leader, given more responsibility, more attention

more satisifed, lower turn over, more organizational commitment

stress is from added responsibilities
LMX Exchange

Out-group characteristics
out of the link, manged by formal rules and polices, more likely to retaliate

stress from being outside of the link
transformational leaders

Leaders who inspire and excite fllowers to high levels of performace related on persaonla attribues instead of their offical positions
transactional leaders

leaders who use rewards and punishments to make deals with subordinates
charismatic leadership
the use, by a leader, of personal abilties and talents to have profound and extraordiarny effects on followers