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93 Cards in this Set

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Motivation
The psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior
Extrinsic reward
The payoff, such as money, a person receives from others for performing a particular task
Intrinsic reward
The satisfaction, such as a feeling of accomplishment, a person receives from performing the particular task itself
Need-based, process and reinforcement
What are the three major perspectives on motivation?
Need-based perspectives AKA content perspectives
Theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people
Need
Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior
Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland
What three needs based theorists are mentioned in chap 12.
Hierarchy of needs theory
This theory proposes that people are motivated by five levels of needs
Unfulfilled OR “Deprived”
According to Maslow, our actions are aimed at fulfilling the ______ needs?
Physiological needs
The need for food, clothing, shelter, comfort and self-preservation would be needs found in what level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?
Safety needs
The need for physical safety, emotional security, avoidance of violence would be needs found in what level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?
Belongingness needs
The need for love, friendship and affection would be needs found in what level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?
Esteem needs
The need for self-respect, status, reputation, recognition, and self-confidence would be needs found in what level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?
Self-actualization needs
The need for self-fulfillment, increasing competence, using abilities to the fullest would be needs found in what level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?
Belongingness needs
Once you have satisfied your safety needs, according to Maslow, you would then be motivated to satisfy what needs?
Self-actualization needs
Once you have satisfied your esteem needs, according to Maslow, you would then be motivated to satisfy what needs?
Safety needs
Once you have satisfied your physiological needs, according to Maslow, you would then be motivated to satisfy what needs?
Two-factor theory
Theory that proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors.
Hygiene factors
Factors associated with job dissatisfaction – such as salary, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and company policy – all of which affect the job context in which people work.
Motivating factors AKA motivators
Factors associated with job satisfaction – such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement – all of which affect the job content or the rewards of work performance.
Frederick Herzberg
This theorist arrived as his needs-based theory as a result of a landmark study of 203 accountants and engineers, who were interviewed to determine the factors responsible for job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
Abraham Maslow
Psychology professor proposed the hierarchy of needs theory
David McClelland
Psychologist who investigated the needs for affiliation and power as a consequence proposed the acquired needs theory
Acquired needs theory
Theory which states that three needs – achievement, affiliation and power – are major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace
Need for achievement
The desire to excel, to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, to achieve excellence in challenging tasks
Need for affiliation
This is the desire for friendly and warm relations with other people
Need for power
This is the desire to be responsible for other people, to influence their behavior or to control them
Two
McClelland identifies how many forms of the need for power?
Personal power
This negative kind of the need for power is expressed in the desire to dominate others, and involves manipulating people for one’s own gratification
Institutional power
This positive kind of the need for power is expressed in the need to solve problems that further organizational goals.
High need for achievement
If you are happy with accomplishment of a task being its own reward, don’t mind or even prefer working alone, and are willing to take moderate risks, then you probably have a high what?
High need for power
If you enjoy being in control of people and events and being recognized for this responsibility you are high in what need?
Process perspectives
Perspectives that are concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act
Expectancy theory, equity theory and goal-setting theory
What are the three process perspectives on motivation
Expectancy theory
This theory suggests that people are motivated by two things (1) how much they want something, and (2) how likely they think they are to get it.
Victor Vroom
Expectancy theory was proposed by what theorist
Expectancy
The belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance
Instrumentality
The expectation that successful performance of the task, will lead to the outcome desired
Valence
The importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward
Equity theory
Theory that focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others
J. Stacy Adams
Who proposed equity theory?
Inputs
This refers to the time, effort, training, experience and intelligence that people perceive they give to an organization
Outputs or Rewards
The rewards that people receive from an organization such as pay, benefits, praise, recognition, bonuses and promotions.
Ratio/ratio
Equity theory suggests that people compare the ___ of their own outcomes to inputs against the ____ of someone else’s outcomes to inputs.
Perception
The most important result of research on equity theory is that: no matter how fair managers think the organization’s policies, procedures, and reward system are, each employee’s ______ of those factors is what counts
Goal-setting theory
This theory suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable.
Edwin Locke and Gary Latham
Who developed goal-setting theory?
Specific, challenging and achievable
To result in high motivation and performance, according to goal-setting theory, goals should have three characteristics.. what are they?
Goal
An objective that a person is trying to accomplish through his or her efforts
B.F. Skinner
Who was the father of operant conditioning?
Effect
Operant conditioning rests on Thorndike’s law of ____
Law of effect
This states that behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated and behavior that results in unpleasant outcomes is not likely to be repeated
Reinforcement theory
Theory which attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.
Operant conditioning
The process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences
Reinforcement
Anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited
Four
How many types of reinforcement are there?
Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction and punishment
What are the four types of reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement
The use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior
Negative reinforcement
The removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior
Extinction
The withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future
Punishment
The application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior
Desirable
You should give rewards to your employees only when they show what types of behavior?
Undesirable
You should give punishment only when employees show frequent ____ behavior?
Job design
The division of the organization’s work among its employees and (2) the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance.
Two
How many different approaches are there to job design?
Fitting people to jobs
The traditional way of job design is fitting what to what?
Fitting jobs to people
The modern way of job design is fitting what to what?
Fitting people to jobs
This way of job design is based on the assumption that people will gradually adapt to any work situation.
Job simplification
The process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs
Fitting jobs to people
This way of job design is based on the assumption that people are underutilized at work and that they want more variety, challenges, and responsibility.
Job enlargement
The opposite of job simplification is job?
Job enlargement
This consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation
Job enrichment
This consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work and advancement
Job enrichment
This is the practical application of Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor motivation-hygiene theory of job satisfaction
Job characteristics model
This model consists of five core job characteristics
Skill variety
This describes the extent to which a job requires a person to use a wide range of different skills and abilities
Task identity
This describes the extent to which a job requires a worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete the job from beginning to end
Task significance
This describes the extent to which a job affects the lives of other people, whether inside or outside the organization
Autonomy
This describes the extent to which a job allows an employee to make choices about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them
Feedback
This describes the extent to which workers receive clear, direct information about how well they are performing the job.
J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham
Who developed the job characteristics model?
Job diagnostic survey
Hackman and Oldham developed a self-report instrument for managers to use called what?
MPS motivating potential score
The Job diagnostic survey indicates whether an individual’s score on this variable is high or low
Pay for performance
This bases pay on one’s results
Piece rate
Employees are paid according to how much out put they produce
Sales commission
Sales representatives are paid a percentage of the earnings the company made from their sales
Bonuses
Cash awards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives
Profit sharing
The distribution to employees of a percentage of the company’s profits
Gain sharing
The distribution of savings or ‘gains’ to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity
Stock options
Certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price
Pay for knowledge
This ties employee pay to the number of job-relevant skills or academic degrees they earn
Flexible workplace
This includes part-time work, flextime, compressed workweek, job sharing and telecommuting.
Sabbaticals
Time off from work to recharge oneself