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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organizational behavior
Field dedicated to better understanding and management of people at work
Values
Abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situation
Attitude
A learned predisposition toward a given object
Affective component of an attitude
This consists of the feelings or emotions one has about a situation
Cognitive component of an attitude
This consists of the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation
Behavioral component of an attitude OR Intentional component
This refers to how one intends or expects to behave toward a situation
Affective (your feelings)
“I hate being given the run-around” is an indication of what component of attitude?
Cognitive component (your perceptions)
“That company doesn’t know how to take care of customers” is an indication of what component of attitude?
Behavioral component (your intentions)
“I’ll never call them again” is an indication of what component of attitude?
Reduce cognitive dissonance
If I am trying top change my attitude and/or behavior, trying to belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior
Job satisfaction
The extent to which you feel positively or negatively about various aspects of your work
Cognitive dissonance
The psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior
Behavior
People’s actions and judgments in the workplace
Importance, control and rewards
How people deal with the discomfort of cognitive dissonance depends on three factors?
Leon Festinger
In 1957 this social psychologist proposed the term cognitive dissonance
Absenteeism
When an employee doesn’t show up for work
Turnover
When employees leave their jobs
Personality
The stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity
Job involvement
The extent to which you identify or are personally involved with your jobs
Organizational commitment
Reflects the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals
Big five personality dimensions
Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience are collectively referred to as what?
Extroversion
How outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive a person is
Agreeableness
How trusting, good-natured, cooperative and soft-hearted one is
Conscientiousness
How dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persistent one is
Emotional stability
How relaxed, secure and unworried one is
Self-efficacy
Belief in one’s personal ability to do a task
Extroversion
What is known as the ‘outgoing’ personality
Locus of control
This indicates how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts
Conscientiousness
What is known as the ‘dependable’ personality
Openness to experience
How intellectual, imaginative, curious and broadminded one is.
Internals (…locus of control)
These types of people exhibit less anxiety, greater work motivation and stronger expectations that effort leads to performance.. and tend to have higher salaries
Self-esteem
The extent to which people like or dislike themselves
Learned helplessness
The debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control one’s environment
Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE)
The self-perceived value that individuals have of themselves as organization members acting within an organizational context
Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE)
Those scoring high on this tend to view themselves as important, worthwhile, effectual and meaningful with their organization
Self-monitoring
The extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations
Perception
The process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment
Four
The perceptual process has how many steps?
Selective attention
What is the first step in the perceptual process?
Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE)
This tends to increase when employees believe their supervisors have a genuine concern for employee’s welfare
Stereotyping
The tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs
Selective perception
The tendency to filter out information that is discomforting, that seems irrelevant, or that contradicts one’s beliefs
Interpretation and evaluation
What is the second step in the perceptual process?
Storing in memory
What is the third step in the perceptual process?
Retrieving from memory to make judgments and decisions
What is the fourth step in the perceptual process?
Sex-role stereotypes
The belief that differing traits and abilities make males and females particularly well suited to different roles
Halo effect
When we form an impression of an individual based on a single positive trait
Race stereotypes
Beliefs that tend to depict individuals of certain races as less involved in their work, less satisfied, less motivated, and less committed than individuals of other races
Horn effect
When we form an impression of an individual based on a single negative trait
Age stereotypes
Beliefs that tend to depict older workers as less involved in their work, less satisfied, less motivated, and less committed than younger workers
Self-fulfilling prophecy AKA Pygmalion effect
The phenomenon in which people’s expectations of themselves or others leads them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true.
Causal attribution
The activity of inferring causes for observed behavior
Kelley’s Model
This model of attribution proposes that people make causal attributions, after they gather information about three dimension of behavior
Consensus, consistency and distinctiveness
According to a famous model of attribution it is proposed that people make causal attributions, after they gather information about three dimension of behavior.. what are those three dimensions?
Consensus
Dimension of behavior when you compare an individual’s behavior with that of his or her peers. You look to see how much other people in the same situation behave the same way.
Stressor
The source of stress
Consistency
Dimension of behavior where you look to see whether an individual behaves the same way at different times
Distinctiveness
Dimension of behavior where you look to see whether an individual behaves the same way in other situations
Fundamental attribution (error)
In this bias people attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors
Self-serving bias
In this bias people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure
Stress
The tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities, and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively.
5
according to the text, how many sources of stress are there?
Individual task demands
Stress created by the job itself comes from what source of stress
Non-work demands
Stresses created by forces outside the organization comes from what source of stress
Individual role demands
Role overload, conflict and ambiguity comes from what source of stress
Roles
Sets of behaviors that people expect of occupants of a position
Role overload
This occurs when others’ expectations exceed one’s ability
Role conflict
This occurs when one feels torn by the different expectations of important people in one’s life
Group demands
Stress created by coworkers and managers comes from what source of stress
Organizational demands
Stress created by the environment and culture comes from what source of stress
Role ambiguity
This occurs when others’ expectations are unknown
Burnout
A state of emotional, mental and even physical exhaustion
Psychological signs/symptoms
Irritability, nervousness, anger, anxiety and hostility are what types of signs or symptoms of stress?
Physiological signs/symptoms
Sweaty palms, restlessness, backaches, headaches and upset stomach are what types of signs or symptoms of stress?
Behavioral signs/symptoms
Changes in eating habits, increased smoking/alcohol/drug abuse are what types of signs or symptoms of stress?
Perception
The process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment
Values
Abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situation
Buffers
Administrative changes that managers can make to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnout
Reducing unhealthy stressors
If I am a manager and I am creating a supportive organizational climate, making jobs interesting and making career counseling available I am likely attempting to reduce what?
Agreeableness
How trusting, good-natured, cooperative and soft-hearted one is