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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE
motivation, ability, work environment
TRADITIONAL APPROACH
work is unpleasant, mgrs know more than workers, money is primary motivation
HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH
maintain appearance of employee participation
HUMAN RESOURCE APPROACH
employee contributions are important and valuable
CONTENT PERSPECTIVES
try to answer question "what factors in the workplace motivate people?"
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
physiological needs
security needs
belongingness needs
esteem needs
self actualization needs
ERG THEORY
needs are grouped into three overlapping categories: existence, relatedness, and growth
TWO FACTOR THEORY
people's satisfaction and dissatisfaction influenced by motivation factors and hygiene factors
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
(work content) range from satisfaction to no satisfaction
HYGIENE FACTORS
(work environment) range from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction
PROCESS PERSPECTIVES
focus on why people choose certain behavioral options and how they evaluate their satisfaction
EXPECTANCY THEORY
motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it
VALENCE
how much an individual values a perticular outcome
EQUITY THEORY
people seek social equity in rewards- ratio of outcomes to inputs
GOAL SETTING THEORY
behavior is a result of goals and intentions
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
rewards cause behavior to change or remain the same over time
AVOIDANCE
strengthens behavior by avoiding unpleasant consequence that would result if the behavior is not performed
EXTINCTION
weakens undesired behavior by ignoring or not reinforcing it
FIXED INTERVAL SCHEDULE
reinforcement applied at fixed time intervals, regardless of behavior
VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE
reinforcement applied at variable time intervals
FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE
reinforcement applied after a fixed number of behaviors
VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE
reinforcement applied after variable number of behaviors- most affective for maintaining performance, also most difficult
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION (OB)
applying basic elements of reinforcement theory in and organizational setting
COMPRESSED WORK SCHEDULE
working full forty hour week in less than five days
FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULE
allow employees to select the hours they will work
JOB SHARING
two part time employees share one full time job
TELECOMMUTING
allow employees to work off site, using internet or info tech
MERIT SYSTEM
different pay raises at the end of the year depending on overall job performance
PIECE RATE INCENTIVE PLAN
pays amount of money per unit produced
INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE PLAN
rewards individual performance when high performance occurs
SALES COMMISSIONS
paid a percentage of sales over a period of time
GAIN SHARING
all members of group get bonus when levels are exceeded
PROFIT SHARING
provides an annual bonus based on corporate profits
EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PROGRAMS (ESOPs)
grant stock ownership as a reward