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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
·         POWER
ability to influence someone else
AUTHORITY
right to influence another person
PERSONAL POWER VS. SOCIAL POWER
Personal- for one's personal gain

Social- power used to create motivation or to create group goals

Reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power, expert power; most effective is expert power
FORMS OF POWER – MOST EFFECTIVE/LEAST EFFECTIVE
reward power + coercive power = compliance; legitimate power =compliance; referent power = organizational effectiveness; expert power = power of the future
DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
the fairness of outcomes that individuals receive in an organization
MACHIAVELLIANISM
ends justify the means
ETZIONI’S THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWER
coercive power- influencing members by forcing them to something under threat of punishment, or thorugh fear and intimidation; utilitarian power- influencing members by providing them with rewards and benefits; normative power- influencing members by using the knowledge that they want very much to belong to the organization and by letting them know that what they are expected to do is the "right thing to do
ETZIONI’S THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL INVOLVEMENT
Alienative- members have hostile, negattive feelings about being in the organization COERCIVE POWER IS APPROPRIATE; Calculative- members weigh the benfits and limitations of belonging to the organization (UTIL.); Moral- members have such positive feelings about organizational membership that they are willing to deny their own needs (NORM.)
KORDA’S THREE SYMBOLS OF POWER
Office Furnishings, Time power, standing by-imposing your schedule on others
INFLUENCE TACTICS – MOST EFFECTIVE/LEAST EFFECTIVE
consultation-(the person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy, strategy, or change), rational persuasion (the person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives), inspirational appeals (the person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals, or by increasing your confidence that you can do it), and ingratiation (the person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of him or her before asking you to do something); rational persuasion and coalition tactics are used most often to get support from peers and superiors to change company policy; consultation and inspirational appeals are particulary effective for gaining support and resources for a new project; pressure is the leaste effective tactic
·         KEYS TO MANAGING POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
open communication, clarify expectations, participative management, encouraging cooperation, managing scarce resources, providing a supportive organizational climate
DIMENSIONS OF EMPOWERMENT
Meaning- fit between the work role and the employee's values and beliefs; competence- belief that one has the ability to do the job well; self-determination- having control over the way one does his/her work; impact belieft that one's job makes a difference within the organization
GUIDELINES FOR EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMS
Voice and choice, remove bureaucratic constraints , set inspirational/meaningful goals
FORMAL VS. INFORMAL LEADERSHIP
Occurs when an organization bestows on a leader the authority to guide and direct others in the organization; occurs when a person is unofficially accorded power by others in the organization and uses influence to guide and direct their behavior
VROOM-YETTON MODEL
Helps managers determine the appropriate decision making strategy to use: decide, consult individually, consult group, facilitate, delegate
·         FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY THEORY – IGNORE LEAST PREFERRED COWORKER
Fit between the leaders' need structure and the favorableness of the leader's situation determine the team's effectiveness in work accomplishment. Leaders are either task or relationship oriented, depending upon how the leaders obtain their primary need gratification.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL
Leader's behaviors should be adjusted to the maturity level of the followers. Telling style -> Selling style-> Delegating style (Immature->mature employees)
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE
Leaders may form different relationships with followers: in groups (more attention, and out groups (less attention)
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Inspire and excite followers to high levles of performance, rely on their personal attributes instead of their official position to manage followers
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Ability to recognize and manage emotion in oneself and in others; self-awareness, empathy, adaptability, and self-confidence
TRUST
willingness to be vulnerable to the actions of others
SERVANT LEADERSHIP
leaders should serve employees, customers, and the community

Telling- unable and unwilling
Selling- willing and unable
Participating- unwilling and able
Delegating- willing and able
DIMENSIONS OF FOLLOWERSHIP
Practice self-management and self-responsibility, commited to organization and a purpose, principle, or person outside themselves, invest in their own competence and professionalism and focus their energy for maximum impact, courageous, honest and credible
TYPES OF FOLLOWERS
Effective Follower- Practice self-management and self-responsibility, commited to organization and a purpose, principle, or person outside themselves, invest in their own competence and professionalism and focus their energy for maximum impact, courageous, honest and credible; dynamic follower- responsible steward of his or her job, is effective in managing the relationship with the boss, and practices responsible self management
·         GUIDELINES FOR LEADERSHIP
appreciate unique attribtues, predisposition, and talents of each leader, organizational preferences in terms of style of leadership, participative, considerate leader behaviors that enhance health of work environment, different leadership situations call for different leadership talents and behaviors, good leaders are likely to be good followers
FUNCTIONAL VS. DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
produce new ideas, learning and growth/releasing tnesions allows improved morale/problems are often cognitive in origin and relate to policies: Unhealthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people, origin is often emotional/behavioral
CAUSES OF CONFLICT – STRUCTURAL/PERSONAL FACTORS
specialiization, interdependence, common resources, goal differences, authority relationships, status inconsistencies, jurisdictional ambiguities; skills and abilities, personalities, perceptions, values and ethics, emotions, communication barriers cultural differences
FORMS OF CONFLICT
Inter- between two people; intra- within something (team/group)
DEFINING MOMENT
????
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Common reactions to the frustration that accompanies conflict: three forms: aggressive, compromise, withdrawal
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES – EFFECTIVE/INEFFECTIVE
superordinate goals (organiz. Goal more important), expanding resources, changin personnel, changing structure, confronting and negotiating; nonaction, secrecy, administrative orbiting (buying time), due process nonaction, character assassination
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES – EFFECTIVE/INEFFECTIVE
Avoiding, accomodating, competing, compromising, collaborating,
DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING
approach in which the goals of one party are in conflict with the goals of the other party
·         INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION
approach in which the parties' goals are not seen as mutually exclusive and in which the focus is on making it possible for both sides to achieve their objectives
ATTRIBUTES OF THE “NEW” CAREER
Discrete exchange (organization gains productivity while a person gains work experience) occupational excellence (continually honing skills that can be marketd across organizations, short term view, project allegiance, organizational empowerment, be your own career coach, EI
REALISTIC JOB PREVIEWS
Both positive and negative information given to potential employees about the job they are applying for, there-by giving them a relaistic picture of the job
CAREER STAGES AND CHARACTERISTICS
Establishment, Advancement, Maintenance, Withdrawal
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT
implicit agreement between the individual and the organization that specifies what each is expected to give and receive in the relationship
EXTERNAL FORCES OF CHANGE
Globalization, workforce diversity, techonological change, Managing Ethical behavior
ORGANIZATIONAL SILENCE
Feel scared to express opinion about upper level management
BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS TO CHANGE
Disengagement- pyscholgocial withdrawal from change; disidentification- feel that their identity has been threateened by the change, and they fell very vulnerable; disenchantment- feeling negativity or anger toward a change, disorientation- feelings of loss and confusion due to a change
ORGANIZATION AND GROUP FOCUSED TECHNIQUES
Survey feedback, MBO, Product and Service Quality Programs, Team Building, Large Group Interventions, process consultation
INDIVIDUAL-FOCUSED TECHNIQUES
Skills training, sensitivity training, management development training, role negotiation, job redesign, health promotion programs, career planning