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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of human behavior in organizational settings, of the interface between human behavior and the organization, and of the organization itself
organizational behavior
one of the first approaches to the study of management, focused on the efficiency of individual workers
scientific management
another early approach to management, focused on how organizations can be structured most effectively to meet their goals
classical organization theory
conducted between 1927 and 1932, led to some of the first discoveries of the importance of human behavior in organizations
Hawthorne studies
the beginning of organizational behavior, was based on the assumption that employee satisfaction is a key determinant of performance
human relations movement
described by Douglas McGregor, is an approach to management that takes a negative and pessimistic view of workers
theory x
described by McGregor, an approach to management that offers a more positive and optimistic perspective on workers
theory y
suggests that in most organizations, situations and outcomes are contingent on, or influenced by, other variables
situational perspective
suggests that individuals and situations interact continuously to determine individuals' behavior
interactional perspective
the process of determining an organization's desired future position and the best means of getting there
planning
the process of designing jobs, grouping jobs into units, and establishing patterns of authority between jobs and units
organizing
the process of getting the organization's members to work together toward achieving the organizations goals
leading
the process of monitoring and correcting the actions of the organization and its members to keep them directed toward their goals
controlling
the figurehead, the leader and the liaison
interpersonal roles
the monitor, the disseminator, and the spokesperson
informational roles
the entrepreneur, the disturbance handler, the resource allocator, and the negotiator
decision-making roles
the skills necessary to accomplish specific tasks within the organization
technical skills
used to communicate with, understand, and motivate individuals and groups
interpersonal skills
used to think in the abstract
conceptual skills
used to understand cause-and-effect relationships and to recognize the optimal solutions to problems
diagnostic skills
the process of optimizing the size of an organization's workforce through downsizing, expanding, and/or outsourcing
rightsizing
personal beliefs about what is right and wrong or good and bad
ethics
an org.'s obligation to protect or contribute to the social environment in which it functions
social responsibility
a person's set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return
psychological contract
effort, kills, ability, time and loyalty
an individual's contributions
tangible and intangible rewards provided by organizations
inducements
the extent to which the contributions the individual makes match the inducements the organization offers
person-job fit
personal attributes that vary from one person to another
individual differences
the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another
personality
set of fundamental traits that are especially relevant to organizations - agreeableness, conscientiousness, negative emotionality, extraversion, openness
"big five" personality traits
the ability to get along with others
agreeableness
the number of goals on which a person focuses
conscientiousness
characterized by moodiness and insecurity
negative emotionality
the quality of being comfortable with relationships; the opposite extreme, introversion, is characterized by more social discomfort
extraversion
the capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of learning new information
openness
the extent to which people believe their circumstances are a function of either their own actions or external factors beyond their control
locus of control
person's beliefs about his or her capabilities to perform a task
self-efficacy
the belief that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations
authoritarianism
personality which behaves to gain power and control the behavior of others
Machiavellianism
the extent to which a person believes he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual
self-esteem
the degree to which she or he is willing to take chances and make risky decisions
risk propensity
the extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills
emotional intelligence (EQ)
a person's complexes of beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or other people
attitudes
the anxiety a person experiences when she or he simultaneously possesses two sets of knowledge or perceptions that are contradictory or incongruent
cognitive dissonance
the extent to which a person is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work
job satisfaction or dissatisfaction
a person's identification with and attachment to the organization
organizational committment
upbeat and optimistic, have an over-all sense of well-being, and see things in a positive light
positive affectivity
generally downbeat and pessimistic, see things in a negative light, and seem to be perpetually in a bad mood
negative affectivity
the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment
perception
the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs
selective perception
the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis or a single attribute
stereotyping
the set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways
motivation
anything an individual requires or wants
need
assumes that employees are motivated by money
scientific management approach
suggests that favorable employee attitudes result in motivation to work hard
human relations approach
assumes employees want and are able to make genuine contributions to the organization
human resource approach
assumes human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance
hierarchy of needs theory
describes existence relatedness and growth needs
ERG theory
identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which determine dissatisfaction
dual-structure theory
intrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as achievement and recognition
motivation factors
extrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as pay and job security
hygiene factors
the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past
need for achievement
need for human companionship
need for affiliation
desire to control the resources in one's environment
need for power
focus on how people behave in their efforts to satisfy their needs
process-based perspectives on motivation
focuses on people's desire to be treated with what they perceive as equity and to avoid perceived inequity
equity theory
the belief that one is being treated fairly in relation to others; inequity is the belief that one is being treated unfairly in relation to others
equity
suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it
expectancy theory
a person's perception of the probability that effort will lead to performance
effort-to-performance expectancy
an individual's perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes
performance-to-outcome expectancy
anything that results from performing a particular behavior
outcome
the degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness a particular outcome has for a person
valence
a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential resulting from direct or indirect experience
learning
a simple form of learning that links a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus
classical conditioning
based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences
reinforcement theory
consequences of behavior
reinforcement
a reward or other desirable consequence that a person receives after exhibiting behavior
positive reinforcement
the opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior
avoidance, or negative reinforcement
decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior
extinction
an unpleasant, or aversive, consequence that results from behavior
punishment
indicate hen or how often managers should reinforce certain behaviors
schedules of reinforcement
behavior is rewarded every time it occurs
continuous reinforcement
provides reinforcement on a fixed time schedule
fixed-interval reinforcement
varies the amt of time between reinforcements
variable-interval reinforcement
provides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors
fixed-ratio reinforcement
varies the number of behaviors between reinforcement
variable-ratio reinforcement
occurs when people observe the behaviors of others, recognize the consequences, and alter their own behaviors as a result
social learning
the application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational settings
organizational behavior modification (OB mod)
how organizations define and structure jobs
job design
as advocated by scientific management, can help improve efficiency, but it can also promote monotony and boredom
job specialization
involves systematically moving workers from on job to another to minimize monotony and boredom
job rotation
involves giving workers more tasks to perform
job enlargement
entails giving workers more tasks to perform and more control over how to perform them
job enrichment
identifies five motivational properties of tasks and three critical psychological states of people
meaningfulness, responsibility for work outcomes, knowledge of results

skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback
job characteristics theory
entails giving employees a voice in making decisions about their own work
participation
the process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority
empowerment
employees work a full forty-hour week in fewer days than the traditional five days
compressed workweek
give employees more personal control over the hours they work each day
flexible work schedules (flextime)
2 or more part-time employees share one full-time job
job sharing
a work arrangement in which employees spend part of their time working off-site
telecommuting