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16 Cards in this Set

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What is translation?
The second step in protein synthesis and gene expression. mRNA into amino acid code and it occurs in the cytoplasm
be detailed
Genetic Code
Alphabet of four characters making 20 amino acids; the codon sequesnce is three nucleotides long
What is the nucleic acid alphabet?
A, G, C, T/U
What is the start codon amino acid?
Methionene, AUG
amino acid
How many amino acids per codon?
Different Mutations
A change in a single nucleotide sequence, insertions, deletions, frameshift mutations
Where does translation occur?
In the cytoplasm in association with the ribosomes.
Components of Translation?
mRNA- genetic code
tRNA- transport appropriate amino acid
ribosome- brings the two languages together with a large and small subunit
don't forget the ribosome
transfers a specific amino acid to a growing chain, it is very specific and attaches to only one amino acid
Structure of tRNA
Clover leaf with mRNA specific anticodon on one end and a specific amino acid on the other
what is the wobble phenomenon?
When different codons can code for the same protein. The first two letters are the same and the third is the "wobble" it gives us flexibility
"Charging" tRNA
When tRNA has an amino acid covalently attached to its 3' end. The recognition site requires ATP
Initiation Step 1
Formation of Pre-Initiation Complex
Preparing tRNA for translation, methionyl-tRNA (initator tRNA), pre-initiation complex: tRNA/eIF2/small ribosome
Initiation Step 2
Binding of Initation Factors to mRNA
Preparation of mRNA, cap binding protein (CBP) or eIF4E, poly-A binding protein (PABP)(-binds 3' poly-A tail of mRNA, can help circularize mRNA before binding and it can either favor or inhibit initiation)
Initiation Steps 3-5
Bringing mRNA into the Ribosome
3. cap recognition complex brings the tRNA and mRNA together
4. ribosomes begins scanning for start codon (AUG) which will complete the ribosome
5. Met-tRNA base-pairs eIF2 hydrolyzes GTP and initiation factors are released
Initiation Steps 6-7
Completing the Ribosome
6. Initation factors are