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20 Cards in this Set

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Define a fire stream
A stream of water or other extinguishing agent after it leaves a fire hose and nozzle until it reaches the desired point
Streams are influenced by
+Operating Pressure
+Nozzle adjustment
+Nozzle design
+condition of orifice
+velocity, gravity, wind, friction with air
Physical states of water
+solid: -32 degrees
+liquid: -32 to 212 degrees
+gas: Above 212 degrees
Expansion capability when converted to steam
+Cools fire by driving heat and smoke away
+Steam prudced aids in smothering and reduces oxygen
+Can cause injuries to firefighters and occupants
Ways water extinguishes
+Cooling
+Smothering: Obsorbs heat and dilutes oxygen. coverts liquid to a gas
Surface area
+Same principle as surface area to mass ratio
+Small droplets of water VS large solid stream of water
Why Water
+Available and inexpensive
+Good heat obsorption
+Water to steam requires lots of heat
+Greater the water surface are the faster it obsorbs heat
Pressure Loss/Gain
Friction loss: Total +Friction loss: pressure lost while forcing water through pipes, fittings, hose and adapters
+Elevation: Posistion of nozzle in relation to the pumping apparatus
Reason for pressure loss
+Damage Couplings
+Kinks or bends
+Elevation
+Hose diameter/Length
Water Hammer
Closing all nozzles and valves slowly
Fire streams classified by size
+Low Volume streams: Discharge less than 40gpm
+Handlines: Discharge 40-350GPM fed by 1 1/2 to 3 inch
+Master streams: Discharge more than 350 GPM fed by
2 1/2 to 3 inch supply lines
Fire Streams by characteristics
+Pressuring device (pump)
+hose
+Agent (water)
+Nozzle
Solid Stream
+Smooth Bore Nozzle:
Mfd Handlines; 7/8 and 1 1/8
at 50 psi
Master streams, deluge sets, and water towers at 80 psi.
1 1/4 to 2inch
Solid advantages
+Better visibility
+Greater Reach
+Reduce nozzle pressure
+Greater penatrating power
+Less Likely to disturb thermal balance
Solid Disadvantage
+No Pattern selection
+Less heat obsorption
+Cannot be used for foam
Fog Stream patterns
+Straight
+Narrow fog 15-45 degrees
+Wide fog 45-80 Degreea
Fog streams
+Composed of small water droplets
+Absorbs large amount of heat
+Nozzle settings
-Straight stream
-narrow fog
-wide fog
Factors affecting reach of fog stremas
+Gravity
+water Velocity
+Pattern selection
+Water droplet friction with air
+wind
Fog Advantages
+High heat obsorption due to water surface exposure
+Aid in ventilation
+Adjustable GPM Settings
+Pattern Selection
Fog Disadvantages
+Reach and Penetration
+susceptible to wind
+May contribute to fire spread, create heat inversion and cause steam burns to FF's when used improperly without adequate ventilation