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20 Cards in this Set

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Vertical shear of geostrophic wind can be related to horizontal temp gradient through the________ _____ ___
thermal wind eqn
Characteristics of a barotropic atmosphere (not likely) are
no horizontal temperature gradient, density depends on pressure only, pressure surfaces coincident with density surfaces, horizontal pressure gradient above any location is the same at any height, and thickness between any two pressure levels constant
An equivalent barotropic atmosphere has what characteristics?
horizontal temperature gradients exist, thickness contours parallel height contours everywhere (constraint), shape of height contours remains the same in vertical, thickness varies in direction normal to height
contours, and temperature anomalies coincide with centers of highs and lows
What happens in warm highs/cold lows?
pressure gradient increases with height, geostrophic wind speed increases with height
In cold highs/warm lows, pressure gradient (in/de)-creases with height, and geostrophic wind speed (in/de)-creases with height
decreases, decreases
Generally, the atmosphere is baro-_____, which means what?
baroclinic: horizontal temperature gradients exist without constraints on shape, geostrophic wind displays both speed and direction
shear, and height and thickness contours intersect
Cold air moving towards warm air is called
Cold air advection
Warm air advection is when
warm air moves towards cold air
Warm air advection (WAA) occurs when
the flow through thickness contours is in the direction opposite Earth's rotation (VEERING)
The flow across thickness contours from cold to warm in the direction of Earth's rotation (BACKING) is called
Cold air advection (CAA)
Cold core lows and warm core highs (strengthen/weaken) with height.
strengthen
Which two combinations of cold/warm core highs/lows weaken with height?
cold core highs and warm core lows
With alternating highs and lows at the surface, cold air goes (equatorward/poleward) and warm air goes (poleward/equatorward)
poleward, equatorward
With alternating H and L, highs do what? Lows?
Highs open up on warm side to form ridges aloft, lows open up on cold side to form troughs aloft
What two components are convergence and divergence made up of?
directional and speed
Cold core lows and warm core highs (strengthen/weaken) with height.
strengthen
Which two combinations of cold/warm core highs/lows weaken with height?
cold core highs and warm core lows
With alternating highs and lows at the surface, cold air goes (equatorward/poleward) and warm air goes (poleward/equatorward)
poleward, equatorward
With alternating H and L, highs do what? Lows?
Highs open up on warm side to form ridges aloft, lows open up on cold side to form troughs aloft
What two components are convergence and divergence made up of?
directional and speed