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38 Cards in this Set

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What 2 things measure specific gravity?
-Refractometer
-Multistix
How does refractometer measure spcf gravity?
Dissolved solids alter refractive index of solution
How does multistix measure spcf gravity?
When ionic conc. is changed, the pKa of a poly-electrolyte changes and indicated by color.
What denotes high or low spcf gravity? values?
Hypersthenuria = 1.025
Hyposthenuria = 1.007
What causes hypersthenuria?

What causes hyposthenuria?
Hyper = diabetes mellitus or x-ray contrast mdia

Hypo = diabetes insipidus
What is isosthenuria?
What causes it?
-Usually 1.010
-Renal tubular damage
What 3 methods detect pH?
-Multistix
-Chemistrip
-Double indicator system
What 2 compounds are used as pH indicators?
Methyl red
Bromthymol blue
What color is an:
-Acid pH?
-Alkaline?
Acid = orange

Alkaline = blue
What is urine pH normally?
What is abnormal?
Normal = acid

Abnormal = neutral or alkaline
What is used to measure glucose?
-multistix
-chemistrips
What is the basic reaction principle in the tests?
Double-sequential enzymatic;
1.Glucose oxidase makes peroxide and gluconic acid.
2. peroxidase produces oxidized chromogen.
What chromagen is produced in:
-Multistix
-Chemstrip
Multistix = K-Iodide
Chemstrip = Terra methyl enzidine
What is the sensitivity in each strip's glucose test?
Multistix = .075 to .125 g/dl
Chemstrip = .04 g/dl
What can cause false reactions in the glucose tests?
Positives: hypochlorite
Negatives: ascorbic acid, 2+ ketones
What are 2 causes of glycosuria?
-Diabetes mellitus
-Renal glycosuria
What test is used to confirm glucose?
Clinitest
What is the principle of the clinitest?

What is its sensitivity?
CuSo4 is reduced to Cu2O

0.25 g/dl
What 8 sugars/acids will make the clinitest positive?
-Glu, lact, fruct, Galactose, pentose.
-Ascorbic acid, homogentisic acid.
What is used to measure ketones?
-Multistix
-Chemstrips
What is the multistix reaction for ketones?

What is the chemstix rxtn?
-Acetoacetic acid + NA Nitro-
prusside makes a maroon complex.

-Acetoacetic acid + acetone + Na nitroferricyanide + glycine in alkaline pH makes violet complex.
What is the sensitivity of the:
-Multistix rxtn?
-Chemstix rxtn?
Multi = 5-15 mg/dl diacetic

Chemstrips = 9 mg/dl diacetic OR 70 mg/dl acetone.
What ketone bodies are present in ketonuria?
Acetone .02
Acetoacetic acid .2
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid .78
What causes false positives in the ketone reactions?
L-dopa
cpd's containing sulfhydryls
How do the strips detect protein?
By protein error of indicators; buffered pH of 3.0
What is the protein indicator in
-Multistix
-Chemstrips
Multi = tetrabromphenol blue.
Chem = tetrachlorophenol-tetrabromosulfophthalein.
What is protein sensitivity in:
-Multistix
-Chemstrips
Multi = 15-30 mg/dl
Chem = 6 mg/dl
What can cause false positives in the protein tests?
-Highly buffered/alkaline urine
-Chlorohexidine.
What is a limitation of the protein tests?
-Most sensitive to albumin; neg doesn't rule out mucoproteins, globulins, bence-jones.
What test confirms pos protein?
SSA
What is the principle of the SSA test?
3% Sulfosal. acid precips protein to make turbidity.
What is the sensitivity of the SSA method?
5-30 mg/dl
What can cause false positive SSA tests?

False neg?
-X-ray contrast media
-Drugs
-Bence jones

Neg: alk urine/highly buffered
What are the 6 causes of proteinuria?
1. Orthostatic
2. Physiologic
3. Glomerular nephritis
4. Nephrotic syndrome
5. Multiple myeloma
6. Renal tubular disorders
What are the rxtns for bili on:
-Multistix
Bilirubin + diazotized di-chloroanaline in acid pH to make purple-tan color.
What are the rxtns for bili on:
-Chemstrips
Bilirubin + dichlorobenzene- diazoniumtetraflouroborate in acid pH makes tan-pink color
What are the sensitivity for bilirubin on chem vs. multistix?
Multistix: .4-.8 mg/dl
Chemstrips: .5 mg/dl
What can cause false negatives for the bilirubin test?
Ascorbic acid.