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28 Cards in this Set

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Another name for the ABAB design is _______
Reversal design
3 acceptable approaches for addressing the problem of excessive baseline variability in a single-subject design:
-waiting it out - continue measureing baseline until stabilizes
-averaging across several data points in the baseline
-controlling variables that might be producing the variability
In probability sampling:
-the predetermined probability of EACH individual being included in the sample is known
3 people who focused on single-subject methodology
-wundt
-skinner
-ebbinghaus
cross sectional
surveyed one time across a set of participants
successive independent
over period of time, different people surveyed
longitudinal
over period of time, same people surveyed
Stratified random sample
population is divided into CATEGORIES and an equal number of members are randomly selected from each category
Snowball Sample
one member of the population is located and that member is used to locate other members
Systematic Sample
A rule is used to select members such as choosing every 5th member from the sampling frame
Simple Random Sample
each member has an equal chance of being included
Stratified Proportionate Sample
The population is divided into categories and members are randomly selected from each CATEGORY in a way that results in a sample that accurately reflects the diversity of the population
Census
ALL members of the population are included in the survey
2 types of multiple baseline designs:
-traditional: verbal instructions, punishment, yelling
-behavioral: systematic verbal feedback, positive and negative reinforcement
how do true experiments and quasi experiments differ in terms of their validity?
-true experiments: lower external validity, higher internal validity
(not real world setting)
-quasi experiments: often have immediate impact on people/animals lives
real world setting = Higher external validity, lower internal.
what is "participant observation" (defining features)? Example?
-the observer both observes and is a part of the action (interacts with those being observed)
- village example
ABAB
Baseline, apply treatment, return to baseline, reapply treatment
what does ABAB reversal design rule out?
2 threats to internal validity: history and maturation
what are the 2 issues in 2nd baseline phase?
-behavior may revert to baseline. other factors in the environment may support the behavior change
- it may be unethical to recover baseline if the behavior is dangerous to either the subject or others (self-mutilating behavior)
threat to internal validity: History
the occurence of an event between measurements and systematically affect the DV(changes behavior)
threat to internal validity: Selection
when important differences exist between the kinds of individuals at one level of the independent variable compared to anther level of IV (usually result of non-random assignment to levels of IV)
threat to internal validity: Statistical Regression
extreme scores will become less extreme on re-measurement (the group of scores regress towards the mean)
threat to internal validity : Maturation
similar to history in that it involves time-related factors, but the concern is the changes in your SUBJECTS between measurements (growing older, wiser, weaker/stronger)
threat to internal validity: Attrition/mortality
occurs when you see subjects lost through death or withdrawel from the study at a higher rate of one level of the IV than another
(WWII example with shock treatment)
non-equivalent control group design
01 X 02 experimental

01 02 control

(quiet hours ex.)
simple interrupted time series design
010203 X 040506

one group w/ series of observations before and after treatment
time series with non equivalent comparison group
010203 X 010203
_______________
010203 010203

over time multiple observations before treatment and after, only one group receives treatment
one group pretest postest design
01 X 02