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272 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name teacher’s roles.
What are the teacher’s tasks as assessor? assess how the students perform their progress inform students about their progress (feedback)
What are the teacher’s tasks as controller? control the whole lesson (what is happening in the classroom) control group work
What are the teacher’s tasks as observer? provide his own practical development observe what is happening draw conclusions see how things work (how to improve things) be reflective ask the students questions why the lesson/activity was…
What are the teacher’s tasks as organiser? plan and manage the whole lesson be flexible as far as sticking to the plan is concerned decide how much time something may take inform students how much time they have and what will happen next organise activities monitor activities decide about seating arrangement decide how to distribute materials
What are the teacher’s tasks as participant? increase students’ motivation by working with them decrease the distance teacher-student
Note: With teacher the amount of lg used by the students is greater, but working in pair with a student makes it impossible for the teacher to control the rest of the class. Also such a student might be more shy and afraid to use lg when working with teacher.
What are the teacher’s tasks as prompter? encourage students during activities give clues how to deal with activities increase the pace of activities
What are the teacher’s tasks as resource? provide information about learning clarify help students with getting access to materials and sources help students when they are working on projects or in groups
What are the teacher’s tasks as tutor? provide students with individual help and assistance according to different needs have more personal contact with the students provide guidance (weaknesses, resources, how to revise/practice, extra tasks)
What kind of feedback can you mention?
1.form feedback
2.content feedback
What is form feedback about? When it is useful? accurate the lg used is (grammar, linguistic performance) student express things
3.useful when practicing structures
What is content feedback about? efficient the information is; the result of communication meaningful the student’s information is
3.what student thinks
4.useful with discussion and problem solving
What different patterns of interaction can you name?
1.lockstep (the whole class work together)
2.pair work work
4.individual work
What kinds of pair work can you distinguish?
1.close pairs (student work with a partner and nobody interferes them) pairs (one pair performs in front of the whole class)
3.mingling pairs (students change partners)
What are the advantages of lockstep?
1.the whole class is involved
2.discipline is better
3.all students have the same opportunity to get new information
4.good for presenting new material
5.teacher controls everything (including the pace)
What are the advantages of pair work?
1.students are relaxed (no stress)
2.students co-operate
3.students are self-dependent
4.students learn to interact
5.students learn autonomy
6.students can choose their own pace
7.STT (Students’ Talking Time) increases
What are the advantages of group work?
1.students are relaxed (no stress)
2.students co-operate
3.students are self-dependent
4.students learn to interact
5.students learn autonomy
6.students can choose their own pace
7.STT increases
8.students learn to negotiate and compromise
9.there is less pressure on individual students than in pair work
10.students exchange ideas freely
What are the advantages of individual work?
1.students work on their own pace
2.students are independent the same time different students can work on different tasks
4.the teacher can meet individual students’ needs
5.students can sue self-access centres (library, maps, dictionaries etc.)
What are the disadvantages of lockstep?
1.not possible to work with students individually
2.students get little lg practice
3.some students may not be involved in the lesson’s hard to find suitable pace for all the students
5.everybody does the same thing at the same time might be stressful for students to say something aloud
7.students only follow teacher’s instruction
What are the disadvantages of pair work?
1.not equally shared tasks
2.usually, students work with the same people
3.students make mistakes and it’s not controlled by the teacher
4.students can use Polish
5.students may not be involved in the task
What are the disadvantages of group work?
1.not equally shared tasks (sometimes only one person does the whole job)
2.students make mistakes and it’s not controlled by the teacher
3.students can use Polish
4.students may not be involved in the task
5.students may not like one another and therefore work unwillingly prepare and form groups is time-absorbing
What are the disadvantages of individual work?
1.preparing different tasks for different students is very time-absorbing
2.the teacher cannot devote much time to every student
How to prevent students from making mistakes?
1.provide feedback
2.walk around the classroom and listen to the students talking a special lesson devoted to mistakes
4.provide a short revision before activities
5.remind students not to use Polish
6.give clear instructions
7.set time-limits of activities
What should a teacher do during pair/group work?
1.not interrupt students when they are working (feedback should be provided before or after the task) mobile
3.take down notes when the students are working
4.not to help the students too much
How to create a group?
1.students can choose who they want to work with
2.the teacher can use different methods to choose a group at random (counting, half-sentences, thread)
3.the teacher can ask students questions like Who was born…? or use astrological signs
What should be borne in mind as far as organising the classroom is concerned?
1.the classroom should be attractive as possible
2.the classroom should look orderly and purposeful
3.the classroom should look neat (graffiti must be removed)
4.the classroom should make the teacher’s work as easy as possible
5.the classroom should produce a sense of ownership (use poster and students’ works)
6.the furniture should be arranged in a way that would help the teacher with work
7.the teacher should have enough space to move easily around the classroom
What should be borne in mind as far as lesson preparation is concerned?
1.plan your lessons so that everyone has something productive to do
2.make your plans simple so that you can easily remember it and the students can follow them
3.make the activities interesting
4.give clear instructions and make sure the students understand them the boss; it’s you who decides when the students must be silent or can talk quietly realistic; don’t plan activities which require more classroom control than you posses
7.never forget that the best motivation for students is their perception that they are achieving and learning something useful
What should be borne in mind as far as teacher intervention is concerned?
1.keep in mind that teaching is a professional activity requiring human warmth, tact, sensitivity and professional detachment calm and patient positive; praise should dominate over censure, reward over punishment
4.if you have to criticise, be brief – never attack pupil’s character, handicaps, family, race or gender
5.remember that if you are constantly nagging a student over a poor behaviour you may give the pupil attention only when behaving badly – catch them when they’re doing the right thing
6.catch any misbehaviour early – nip it in the bud consistent – when they do something wrong and you ignore it one day and punish the next they will be angry with you
8.avoid make pupils lose face
9.avoid threats – but if you make a threat be consistent – follow it through
10.if you cannot control the situation, stay calm and sent for support form a senior member of staff
What can cause discipline problems from the teacher’s side?
1.lack of preparation
2.lack of consistence
3.manner of speaking
4.attitude (towards topic, profession, students)
5.neglecting the students
6.not being an example for the students
9.exaggerating friendliness
10.preference towards some of the students
What can cause discipline problems from the student’s side?
1.mood (caused by school, home)
3.physical problems
4.lack of integration
5.exaggerated integration
What external factors can cause discipline problems?
3.forthcoming weekend/holiday etc.
What is the link between discipline and school as institution?
1.students can be officially punished for misbehaviour
2.teachers can co-operate with each other
3.teachers can co-operate with the parents of the students
4.there are many principle regulations which help teachers with discipline
Name the factors contributing to discipline?
1.lesson planning
2.classroom management
grouping students
nomination techniques
variety of techniques used
variety of teaching styles
4.interpersonal relationships
teacher-student and student-student relationships
respecting each other
5.students’ motivation
informing students about aims and reasons of their learning
motivating students throughout lessons
6.keeping in touch
connected with classroom management
teacher notices problems and takes appropriate steps
teacher controls the whole class and receives signals
What actions can be taken in cases of student’s misbehaviour?
1.teacher stops talking and waits until all the students listen
2.teacher stops activity when most of the class have completed it
3.teacher changes the activity
4.teacher glances at the students
5.teacher goes round the classroom
6.teacher puts his/her hand on the student’s shoulder
7.teacher keeps asking questions
8.teacher talks to the students and asks them to stand up
9.teacher uses appropriate amount of humour
10.teacher uses school as institution (principal, parents, other teachers)
What headings should a lesson plan have?
8.course book
9.teaching aids
10.stages of the lesson
What should be considered to set the aims of a lesson?
1.whether the aims are valid in terms of the students’ needs
2.whether the aims can be achieved with the particular group of students and in the time allowed
3.whether the activities match and achieve the stated aims
What points should be considered when formulating aims?
1.does the lesson involve revision, presentation, practice, production or a combination of these?
2.what form of a structure is to be practised?
3.which function of the structure is being taught?
4.which exponents of a function are going to be taught?
5.will it be necessary to teach co-functions (i.e. responses to the main function? (i.e. inviting – acceptance and refusal)
6.will the lesson focus on vocabulary, pronunciation, stress and intonation?
7.if the lesson aims to practise the reading or something else should be specified in the aim of the lesson?
What should the part describing procedure include?
1.stage of the lesson (presentation, oral practice, written practice)
2.the details of each stage (context of the activity, page numbers)
3.timing of each activity (approximate times for each activity)
4.interaction pattern (i.e. open pairs or groups)
What practical constrains affect the lesson plan?
1.time (the length of the lesson, frequency of lessons, the time of day)
2.the number of students
3.the size of the classroom
4.the availability of aids
What knowledge about a student does the teacher need to have?
1.the students’ needs
2.the students’ level of English
3.the students’ age
4.the students’ interests
5.the students’ lg learning background
6.the students’ personality and attitudes
Why does the teacher need a lesson plan? establish the order of events during the lesson plan the timing and to control it provide him/herself with reflection have some reference to what should be done next decide what are the lesson’s objectives define the aims of the lesson be reminded of all the aid needed be reminded of page numbers anticipate problems and find the right solutions evaluate the students
What is metalanguage?
Professional language (containing specialised items)
How to make a lesson varied?
1.vary activities
2.vary materials used
3.vary aids used
4.vary skills (at least two, i.e. speaking, reading etc.)
5.vary patterns of interaction
6.vary seating arrangement
7.vary the level of difficulty of tasks and activities
8.vary the mood of activities (i.e. mix serious activities with funny ones)
9.vary pace of the lesson
What questions about planning should a teacher ask himself as far as learners are concerned?
1.what do they like doing?
2.what topic interests them?
3.what do they need?
4.what do they already know?
What questions about planning should a teacher ask himself as far as aims are concerned?
1.what are the aims of the lesson?
2.what are the aims of each activity?
What questions about planning should a teacher ask himself as far as teaching points are concerned?
1.what skills will the students be working on?
2.what items of lg will be studied or used in the lesson?
3.what topics, contexts will be used? I confident about these teaching points?
5.what preparation/study do I need to do?
What questions about planning should a teacher ask himself as far as teaching procedures are concerned?
1.what activities will help the learners achieve the lesson objectives? will the activities link together to make a whole lesson? long will each activity take? will I deal with problems and mistakes?
5.what things can go wrong and cause problems? many separate activities am I planning?
What questions about planning should a teacher ask himself as far as materials are concerned?
1.what materials will be used for each activity?
2.what do I need to make, photocopy, borrow, steal?
3.what page of the course book have we got to?
4.what can be used for homework?
What questions about planning should a teacher ask himself as far as classroom management is concerned? will the chairs be arranged?
2.what instructions will I give?
3.what happens if they don’t understand my instructions? long is the whole lesson? will I control timing?
6.where will I be standing?
What are reasons for asking questions? activate students make sure that students participate make sure that students’ participation is balanced find out students’ opinions check if students understand everything check students’ knowledge show general interests in students’ opinions direct students’ attention to new topic/task revise and practice material restore discipline in the class provide a model of lg (i.e. Past Simple questions) stimulate thinking encourage students to express their opinions find out something new from students, as they can be experts in some specialised areas
Name different kinds of questions. questions
2.closed-ended questions
3.display questions
4.real questions
What are open-ended questions?
questions with unlimited range of responses
What are close-ended questions?
questions with limited range of responses
What are display questions?
questions which forces to display students’ knowledge (the teacher knows the answer)
What are real questions?
questions which forces to explore students’ knowledge (the teacher doesn’t know the answer)
What makes questions effective?
1.clarity (questions must be presented in a clear way)
2.learning value (question must practise sth, stimulate thinking etc.; i.e. there must be a reason for asking questions)
3.interest (questions must be interesting)
4.availability (questions must be answerable to most students)
5.extension (questions should enable students to answer in a sophisticated way)
6.teacher’s reaction (teacher must be interested in the students’ answers)
What are nomination strategies?
methods how to choose students to answer questions
Give as many nomination strategies as you can.
1.raising a hand (gives students an occasion to show their knowledge)
2.question + appointed person (involves all students)
3.appointed person + question (incorrect! The class is not involved)
4.the whole class in choir (shy students have a chance to answer but lazy students avoid answering)
What kind of audio-visual aids can you mention?
1.real objects (realia)
3.flash cards
4.wall charts for oral composition
6.overhead projector transparencies
7.slides and film strips
10.tape recorder
11.the lg laboratory
What are flashcards?
cards on which words and/or pictures are printed or drawn (they must be clear for students to see)
What two kinds of flashcards can you mention?
1.word cards
2.picture cards
What are pictures for oral compositions?
1.description (students describe the picture)
2.question and answer (students answer questions about the picture)
3.structure practice (students make possible sentences to the picture)
4.dialogue (students make up a dialogue based on the picture)
5.discussion (students evoke discussion based on the picture)
6.homework (students work with the picture at home)
What are the advantages of using overhead projector transparencies?
1.transparencies can easily be made, even during a lesson
2.OHP might be an alternative to the blackboard
3.OHP does not have to be cleaned and there is more space available saves time, as transparencies to be used can be prepared in advance
5.used for the same purpose as the blackboard
What is the difference between slides and film strips?
film strips are similar to slides except that they are easier to use, as all the pictures come on a roll
What are the advantages of using slides/film strips? film strips all the pictures come on a roll, so you don’t have to worry if the pictures are upside down or in the wrong order, which is a problem with slides
2.have the same function as wall charts, flash cards and pictures for oral composition’s possible to mover from one picture into another one once the equipment is installed’s possible to make one’s own slides
5.very useful for any series, i.e. one’s routines, talking about London
6.also useful for some specialist subjects
What should be borne in mind when using films?
1.choose specialised films for different professions
2.always see the films before you show them to your students
3.stop the film from time to time and ask students questions
4.give the students a script of the film after they have seen it
5.encourage the students to go to the cinema often and/or watch TV
What are the advantages of using video?’s not expensive’s easy to operate
3.many materials available
4.the teacher/students can produce their own video materials
5.can stop/rewind/play again any time
What should be borne in mind when using video? with other teachers in acting out suitable sketches
2.record films, interviews, programmes from TV the students themselves as they act out, for example dialogues
What are the stages of using video? Describe each stage.
preparing before watching
discussing the topic
introducing new vocabulary (+some revision)
making students predict about the film
watching + doing tasks
running commentary (one student watches and describes everything to another student, who doesn’t see the film)
witness statement (remembering as many details as possible)
other activities based on the film
writing a letter in which students describe what they felt when watching the film
discussing the film and referring to students’ own experience
having an interview
describing the characters on the film
What are the advantages of using tape recorders?
1.a tape recorder is an essential classroom aid brings other voices into the classroom gives the students practice in listening to variety of English different from the teacher’s
4.a great deal of material is available’s easy to record something on one’s own
6.used mainly for practising listening but also songs and dialogues
What should be borne in mind when using tape recorders? precise
2.without proficient control, hours can be wasted trying to find the right place on the tape
3.always set the tape at the appropriate place before the lesson starts
4.if you can, use a tape recorder with a counter
How to use OHP, video and tape recorder?
1.make sure the equipment is ready before the lesson
2.make sure that the equipment meets your aims (it can’t be just an attraction!)
3.make sure that the material is interesting and suitable for the students’ age, interests and level
4.prepare the material in advance not prepare too long material (divide it into small sections) not use materials you don’t know
7.check the quality of materials
What kinds of video materials can you mention?
documentaries, feature films, debates, talk-shows, interviews, commercials, news
What are the reasons for using video? provide the whole visual context for lg event practise listening skills in natural context practise narrative and descriptive skills build vocabulary use it as a stimulus for other activities (writing, speaking etc.)
What aids can be helpful to learning vocabulary?
1.learning words with associated meaning together (network)
2.learning words with associated grammar together
3.learning words based on the same root
Name some points on how we learn new vocabulary.
1.we recognise/understand many more words than we use
2.we usually see/hear a word several times before we use it productively
3.students need to be helped to acquire a limited productive vocabulary quickly and soon; they can then build on this at an unforced speed
4.students should be encouraged to build their vocabulary by reading and listening outside class, and by using a monolingual dictionary
What techniques of vocabulary presentation can you mention?
1.words in context
4.flash cards
6.real objects
8.facial expressions
13.explanation in English
What are the advantages and disadvantages of translation when teaching vocabulary?
1. the easiest way to introduce abstract words
1.not effective
2.easy but not appealing
3.students easily forget
4.does not show in which words are used
5.tricky (one word can have many meanings) effort from the students
What two kinds of vocabulary can we distinguish? (productive) vocabulary
2.passive (receptive) vocabulary
What is active (productive) vocabulary?
he vocabulary one uses
What is passive (receptive) vocabulary?
the vocabulary one knows, understands, recognises but is unable to use
What are the criteria for vocabulary selection?
1.frequency (how often the word is used and how much the students need it)
2.coverage (how many different meanings the word has)
3.students’ needs & interests
4.students’ age
5.students’ lg level
6.learnability (how easy it is to learn the word)
What is denotation?
the main dictionary definition
What is connotation?
the feelings a word evokes
What is appropriateness of a word?
the information if the word is formal/informal/taboo etc. or used in writing/speaking etc.
What are synonyms? Give an example.
words similar/close in meaning, i.e. a child = a kid
What are antonyms? Give an example.
words opposite in meaning, i.e. old ≠ young
What are hyponyms? Give an example.
words which are specific and belong to a wider category
i.e. dog, cat wolf (hyponyms)  animals (subordinate)
What are collocations? Give an example.
possible combinations of words, i.e. heavy rain/traffic/stones
What are metaphors? Give an example.
literary words with specific meaning, i.e. people hiss
What are idioms? Give an example.
a set of words which meaning does not relate to individual words, i.e. to rain cat and dogs
What is style?
social context of the lg used
What is register? Give an example.
lg used by professionals defined by topic and the context of use
i.e. (law) a minor – nieletni, (law) a suit – sprawa sądowa
What is ESP?
English for Specific Purposes
What are dialects? Give an example.
geographical varieties of lg, i.e. a loch = a lake
What vocabulary items should be introduced before reading?
1.key words (items which are relevant to understand the text)
2.explaining all item would take too much time
What are concept questions? Give an example.
1.short questions we ask about new items
2.used to make sure student understand the new items
3.used to extend students’ vocabulary
i.e. ‘bakery’ What can you buy at the bakery?
What needs to be taught when teaching a word?
3.meaning relationship (i.e. how one word is related to other words)
appropriateness of words
6.word formation
-ing forms
past forms
adjectives/nouns/verbs etc.
What is the greatest disadvantage of bilingual dictionaries?
lack of examples given
What are the advantages of monolingual dictionaries? see how the words is used
2.practical usage
3.more information is given than in bilingual dictionaries
4.self-study guide (no teacher needed)
5.such dictionaries contribute to students’ autonomy
6.such dictionaries provide better understanding revise other words at the same time
8.more lg input
What kind of information is included in monolingual dictionaries?
2.sentences (context)
8.phrasal verbs
9.grammar notes
11.word formation
12.synonyms and antonyms
What is grammar?
the study and practice of the rules by which words change their form and are combined to form acceptable units of meaning within a lg
What is morphology?
the system of rules how words change their form
What is syntax?
the system of rules how word are combined
What are functions?
communicative acts in which lg is used for certain purpose
Provide examples of the relationship between function and structure.
going to; would like; intend
Let’s…; We could…
If I were…; had better; I advise…to…

giving permission, probability
ability, permission, offers
What is communicative competence?
the ability to communicate in a lg
What approaches to teaching grammar can you mention?
1.implicit approach
2.explicit approach
3.inductive approach
4.deductive approach
Describe implicit approach to teaching grammar.
1.not learning grammar consciously
2.grammar is not taught grammar focus
4.based on the way in which one learns L1
5.used when teaching children mainly
Describe explicit approach to teaching grammar.
1.learning grammar consciously
2.grammar is taught openly
3.grammar rules and explanations are both given
4.very common
Describe inductive approach to teaching grammar.
1.students are provided with the context
2.students work out all the rules
3.students draw conclusions
Describe deductive approach to teaching grammar.
1.students are provided with the rule by the teacher
2.teacher should remember that it is advised to start with examples before providing the rule
What are the advantages of inductive approach to teaching grammar?
1.students are independent
2.students are forced to think
3.students’ autonomy increases
4.students’ involvement increases
5.students are in the centre
6.students understand better’s interesting’s motivating
9.grammar becomes more meaningful
What are the disadvantages of inductive approach to teaching grammar?’s time-consuming’s challenging for a teacher to supply students with clues might be confusing for students
4.not all students like eliciting rules
What are the modern trends (principles) in teaching grammar?
1.grammar rules are complex (i.e. teacher should not provide all the information at one goal)
2.grammar should be taught meaningfully
3.some grammar is bound to be learned subconsciously
4.there should be a shift between accuracy and fluency
5.there should not be too much emphasis on the rule itself
6.L2 should be used as often as possible
7.L1 may have a facilitating role in teaching and learning grammar
8.learning a lg is not a linear process (i.e. different structures are connected together and cannot be separated)
9.teacher should use a combination of different teaching grammar approaches
10.the form-function relationship cannot be neglected
What is remedial teaching?
correcting what we had done before and presenting it in a different way (belongs to deductive approach)
Give the 3 stages of teaching grammar.
What is the purpose of the presentation stage in teaching grammar? give students the opportunity to realise the usefulness and relevance of a new lg item present the meaning and form check understanding
What is the purpose of the practice stage in teaching grammar? provide maximum practice within controlled, but realistic and contextual frameworks build confidence in using new lg
What is the purpose of the production stage in teaching grammar? provide the opportunity for students to use new lg in freer, more creative ways check how much has really been learnt integrate new lg with old practise dealing with the unpredictable motivate students
What are the typical activities of the presentation stage in teaching grammar?
1.building-up appropriate situational and linguistic contexts for new lg
2.listening to and initial repetition of model sentences
What are the typical activities of the practice stage in teaching grammar?
2.2, 3, 4 line dialogues
3.information and option gaps
What are the typical activities of the production stage in teaching grammar?
2.role plays
3.discourse chains
5.information and option gaps
What is the degree of control in the presentation stage in teaching grammar?
highly controlled (T model)
What is the degree of control in the practice stage in teaching grammar?
very controlled (students have limited choice)
What is the degree of control in the production stage in teaching grammar?
greater freedom
What do we need to introduce when teaching grammar?
form, meaning, use
What is the difference between meaning and use?
what the structure refers to
related to functions
short or long activity
in what situations
what context
what purpose
How to present grammar?
1.when presenting a structure try to build a context
2.present a material by yourself (overusing course books is not very effective)
3.use personalisation because it attracts more attentions
What is personalisation?
a reference to students’ and teachers’ own experience
What are the characteristics of a good grammar presentation? should be planned in advance and well-structured should be clear should be interesting (using many techniques and visuals) needs a lot of support (i.e. teaching aids and visuals) should not e too long (it has to be precise and concise) has to be efficient (i.e. students should be able to do some activities during the presentation itself) has to be productive (i.e. the number of examples of a new structure should be provided) has to focus both on oral and written form
9.theory and practice balanced; theory supported with many examples
10.explanation – not too detailed (sometimes generalisation is more effective)
11.lg should be adjusted to the level of learners
12.only familiar vocabulary so that not to distract students’ attention from the target explanation
13.the material should be adjusted to the students’ age and level
14.the pace should be adjusted to the students’ age and level
Give the stages of a grammar lesson (a model for introducing new lg).
who cares? :)
What types of activities for grammar lessons can you think of?
2.interaction activities
3.discourse chain
What kinds of drills do you know? Describe each of them.
1.repetition drill (good for presentation of pronunciation)
2.substitution drill (replacing parts of sentences)
3.transformation drill (paraphrasing)
4.question/answer drill
5.back-chaining drill (building words and sentences)
What kinds of interaction activities do you know? Describe each of them.
1.information gap activities (student knows sth and exchange his information with other student)
2.option gap activities (students exchange personal opinions/views)
What is discourse chain?
students are given in-depth instructions what they are supposed to do
What are the factors affecting pronunciation learning?
1.native lg
2.the age factor
3.amount of exposure
4.phonetic coding ability
5.attitude and identity
6.motivation and concerns for good pronunciation
What are the teacher’s roles in teaching pronunciation? get students’ attention help students make sounds provide feedback highlight the main points establish priorities revise exercises with the students assess the progress of students
How can the attitude influence the pronunciation of a foreign lg?
the more positive attitude one has, the better one learns and the better one’s pronunciation is
What role has the difference in sound system of L1 and English learners?
the more differences between L1 and L2 the more problems with pronunciation
Is there an age-related limit on the mastery of pronunciation in a second lg?
it is believed that 13 is the critical period for native like pronunciation
What else, except for the exposure to English, matters for an English learner?
1.their response
2.their opportunities
What is phonetic-coding ability?
the ability of sound-distinguishing
Name most frequent problems for learners as far as pronunciation is concerned.
1.non-native sounds
What aspects of pronunciation can you mention?
2.word stress
3.sentence stress + rhythm
What might be useful when teaching pronunciation of sounds?
1.simple explanation how to produce a certain sound + demonstration
2.with adults it might be useful to present in-depth explanation and the sound graph
What techniques for sound practice can you mention?
1.minimal pairs
2.counting a certain sound in sentences
3.handouts with blanks
6.rote learning
7.homophones (i.e. paw, poor, pour)
Why word stress is important?
stress can change the meaning of a word
What techniques for word stress practice can you mention?
1.marking stress (in speech, gesture, in writing)
2.students selecting words according to stress
3.checking stress in dictionaries
What are Stress-Timed Languages?
lgs with a regular beat (i.e. the length of time between the stressed syllables is the same)
What techniques for sentence stress practice can you mention?
1.sentences (one sentence + context = different sentence stress)
2.marking sentence stress by clapping and tapping
4.jazz chants and songs
6.reading aloud
7.shadow reading (imitating the speaker as much as possible)
What is intonation?
the melody of a sentence; it expresses attitudes and replaces punctuation in speech
What problems with intonation can you mention?
1.there are many different patterns’s difficult to learn it consciously
3.some students might not hear the differences in intonation
What two types of intonation are there?
rising and falling
What techniques for intonation practice can you mention?
2.marking intonation (arrows)
3.singing the melody before producing the sentence
4.hand gestures
5.exaggerated intonation
6.jazz chants
7.back chaining
8.reading aloud
9.role plays
10.drama techniques
What do we include in so-called receptive skills?
reading and listening
What’s the purpose of using reading & listening? practise lg practise reading/listening skills provide background provide stimulus for writing/speaking provide information (+culture)
What types of materials to be used in the classroom can you distinguish?
Distinction 1
1.finely-tuned materials
carefully selected texts with the new structure
used to practise lg
2.roughly-tuned materials
texts slightly above students’ level but still within their reach
used to practise skills

Distinction 2
1.non-authentic materials
specially designed texts (artificial texts) with high lg control
used to practise lg
especially useful in presentation
2.semi-authentic materials
simplified authentic texts or texts specially written (in an authentic-like manner)
used to practise skills
3.authentic materials
texts not intended for any pedagogical purpose
used to practice skills
What is ‘high language control’?
full, perfectly formed sentences + repetition of the same item
What are the advantages of using authentic materials?
1.real lg in real context’s interesting’s motivating
4.variety of structure
5.students have the feeling of success
6.students get prepared for more difficult tasks
7.students get familiar with different types of materials
8.skills can be practised efficiently
9.culture is presented
What two types of tasks can you think of in terms of authenticity?
1.authentic tasks (real-life tasks, i.e. ordering things)
2.non-authentic tasks (artificial tasks, i.e. paraphrasing)
What other names for semi-authentic materials do you know?
Name 3 stages in any reading/listening lesson are there. What does each involve?
activating students’ knowledge (discussion, posters etc)
creating students’ expectations
introducing the task to be done while working
completing tasks
exercises connected with the topic (usually writing/speaking)
What sub-skills can you mention as far as reading and listening are concerned?
1.predicate skills (creating interest)
2.scanning/selective listening (looking for very specific information)
3.skimming/gist listening (looking for the main ideas and ignoring irrelevant info)
4.intensive reading/intensive listening (all the information is relevant)
5.inferring the attitude of the author (analysing and deducting, looking at the shape of the whole text)
6.guessing the meaning of unknown vocabulary
7.identifying discourse markers and patterns
What is ‘extensive reading and listening’?
reading/listening for pleasure outside the classroom (it is not a skill, but approach)
What is a schemata?
all the knowledge stored in the memory
What two kinds of schemata are there?
1.content schemata
2.formal schemata
What is ‘content schemata’?
background knowledge about cultural orientation of content of a passage
What is ‘formal schemata’?
students’ expectations about how pieces of textual information will relate to each other and in what order details will appear
What are ‘discourse markers’?
signals showing how the ideas link and what will come next
What makes a listening text difficult?
1.speed of speaking
2.amount of unknown vocabulary
3.number of speakers
4.accent of the speaker
5.background noises
6.organisation of ideas (unfinished sentences, order, interruption)
7.unfamiliar topic
8.type of the text
9.sufficiency of information
10.length of the text
How to help students with listening task?
1.give pre-listening tasks (increasing interests, expectations and revising vocabulary)
2.keep the recording short the tape a sufficient number of times
4.check students’ comprehension
5.reduce the memory load
6.focus on meaningful information only
7.avoid tricking students by changing the requirements halfway
8.make sure the equipment is working and in good condition
Name the features of authentic speech.
1.natural rhythm
2.natural intonation
3.natural pronunciation
4.natural overlap between speakers
5.natural delivery (sometimes fast, sometimes slow)
6.relatively unstructured lg, which is used spontaneously in speech
7.incomplete sentences, false starts, hesitations
8.background noises and voices
9.natural stops and starts
10.less densely packed information than in written lg
Name the features of non-authentic speech.
1.unnatural rhythm
2.unnatural intonation
3.over-clear pronunciation
4.little overlap between speakers
5.slow and monotonous delivery
6.structured lg which was meant to be read silently rather than spoken aloud
7.complete sentences background noises
9.artificial stops and starts
10.densely packed information
What pre-listening activities can you think of?
1.looking at pictures and talking about them
2.looking at list of items/thoughts etc.
3.making lists of ideas/suggestions etc.
4.reading a text
5.reading through questions (to be answered while listening)
7.completing part of the chart
9.informal talk / class discussion
What while-listening activities can you think of?
1.marking/checking items in the pictures
2.matching pictures with what is heard
3.putting pictures in order
4.completing pictures
5.picture drawing
6.carrying out actions
7.making models/arranging items in patterns
8.following a route
9.completing grids
10.form/chart completion
12.using lists
14.multiple-choice questions
16.spotting mistakes
18.seeking specific items of information
What post-listening activities can you think of?
1.form/chart completion
2.extending lists
4.matching with reading text
5.extending notes into written responses
7.using information for problem-solving and decision-making activities
8.jigsaw listening
9.identifying relationships between speakers
10.establishing the mood/attitude/behaviour of the speaker
What is ‘jigsaw listening’?
a listening activity in which students listen to different but related texts or different parts of one text and their tasks is to exchange information to create the whole text
What skills are activated in the post-listening stage?
What is the difference between ‘techniques’ and ‘strategies’?
techniques – are activities one does, what one does
strategies – are ways of approaching an activity, how one does
What reading techniques can you mention?
3.contextual guessing
4.cloze exercise
7.scrambled stories (‘jigsaw reading’)
8.information transfer
9.making inferences
10.intensive reading
11.extensive reading
12.passage completion
What is skimming?
reading a passage quickly to grasp the main idea or gist
What is scanning?
reading a passage quickly to find specific information
What is contextual guessing?
making guesses about the meaning of words by looking at the surrounding words or situation
What is cloze exercise?
a fill-in-the-blank exercise, in which some words are omitted, designed to measure how well the reader understands how a text is linked together
What is outlining?
note-taking designed to help the reader see the overall organisation of a text
What is paraphrasing?
writing or saying ideas in other words to measure the reader’s understanding of the main ideas of a text
What are ‘scrambled stories’ or ‘jigsaw reading’?
re-ordering mixed pieces of a text to show that the reader understands how a text fits together
What is information transfer?
transferring information form the text into another form or related text or drawing to measure comprehension
What is making inferences?
reading between the lines
What is intensive reading?
reading carefully for complete, detailed comprehension
What is passage completion?
finishing a reading passage based on thorough understanding of the text
What two approaches to reading can you mention?
1.bottom-up approach approach
Describe the bottom-up approach.
1.looking straight at the text
2.reading the text
3.understanding the text
4.paying attention to isolated fragments of the text
5.focusing on details
Describe the top-down approach.
1.referring to one’s knowledge before reading
2.creating expectations
3.looking at the text
4.reading the text
5.comparing the text with one’s own knowledge
6.looking at the text globally
How to help students with difficult reading texts?
1.provide more background information
2.pre-teach key words some time before reading the text
3.divide the text into shorter pieces
4.mark by questions what is important and what is not
5.add discourse markers where helpful
6.ask easy questions
7.paraphrase difficult ideas
8.set easy tasks
9.praise and encourage your students
Name as many while-reading activities as you can?
1.deducting meaning
word formation
previous knowledge
the type of text
the topic
the intended reader
the purpose of the text
the tone of the text
quotes from the text
grammatical features (i.e. underlining different tenses)
titles or headings in L1 with their equivalents in L2
titles or headings with longer texts
texts with pictures or diagrams
split sentences
jumbled paragraphs or sentences
jumbled pictures associated with the text
jumbled sequence of texts
6.following instructions
responding with actions
following a description of a process
two texts where one text contains new information
two different texts dealing with the same subject
short story and a sequence of pictures
noting information under specified headings in a chart
noting the main ideas or arguments
noting specific points
expanding a short newspaper headline into a complete sentence
finishing an incomplete sentence
putting the missing words/sentences in a gapped text
correcting mistakes in a text
doing a crossword
10.decision-making / problem-solving
solving a mystery of a crime
reading a brochure and making a decision
What are the true assumptions about the nature of reading?
1.we do not perceive and decode letters in order to read words; we look at the general shape
2.we do not need to understand all the words in order to understand the meaning of a text (certain items can be omitted)
3.incoherent words and/or sentences make reading slower but is not true that the more letters/words there are in a text, the longer it will take to read
4.understanding of a text comes form both the text itself and our previous knowledge
What does the reader do when the reading text differs from his/her schemata?
1.misunderstands the text
2.ignores the new information
3.rejects the whole text
4.adjusts his/her schemata
How do students benefit form while-reading activities?
1.they develop their reading skills
2.they are put on lg input
3.tasks help them understand the text
What are the advantages of reading aloud?
1.useful to practise pronunciation
2.students can see that there is little relationship between spelling an pronunciation
What are the disadvantages of reading aloud?
1.time consuming
3.useless for reading skills
4.stressful for some students
5.difficult to perform with new texts
6.difficult to find the right pace for all students
8.students do not focus on the content of the text
What are the criteria for reading text selection?
1.look for authentic texts
2.what skills you want to practise
3.the difficulty of the text (i.e. avoid rare vocabulary, insufficient information and non-contemporary texts)
4.familiarity of the topic
5.length of the text
6.organisation of ideas
7.text genre
8.non-grammatical texts (i.e. dialects)
How can a teacher make feedback more learner-centred?
1.make students compare answers among each other
2.involve more than one student to answer the same question
3.make students justify their answers
4.respond both to correct and incorrect answers the students who has an incorrect answer
What skills fall into the category ‘productive skills’?
writing and speaking
What do students benefit form speaking and writing?
1.they see how much they know
2.they know how to combine things
3.they use the lg in practical way
How does the teacher benefit from speaking and writing?
1.teacher receives feedback
2.teacher sees the progress
3.teacher assesses and judges what has to be improved
What are the three sub-skills for productive skills?
1.developing meaning clearly and logically
2.expressing the function adequately
3.being able to use a lg appropriate for a person one is addressing and at an acceptable level of accuracy
Give the three ways in which teachers can control students’ production.
1.the teacher gives a model of a written text for students to follow
2.the teacher discusses and plans with students what they are going to say/write
3.the teacher asks students to draft a text and provides feedback – a corrected version
What are the differences between spoken and written texts?
1.redundancy (many elements which are not necessary)
5.false starts
6.body lg
8.immediate feedback

2.good organisation
What are the features of a successful speaking activity?
1.students are engaged
2.students talk a lot
3.students show enthusiasm
4.speaking is evenly distributed
5.lg used is at a certain level
6.there is no or very little teacher interaction
What problems can occur during speaking activities?
1.students do not know what to say
2.students do not how to say sth
3.students do not want to say much
4.students are shy and lack confidence
5.students use their L1 (because they lack vocabulary or simply forget to speak English)
6.students show too much enthusiasm
7.little motivation
8.uneven participation
9.there is too much of teacher’s interaction
What tips for teachers can you think of as far as speaking activists are concerned? with new vocabulary before the discussion
2.introduce the topic beforehand (lecture + materials)
3.remind students to use English
4.create English-friendly environment
5.choose interesting topic
6.make sure activities are within the students’ reach not use the new lg introduced during the same lesson
8.frame the activity well
9.set a time limit for the activity
10.prepare good seating arrangement
How can a teacher deal with shy students?
1.appreciate them
2.praise them
3.make other students create positive atmosphere
4.provide quiet time before the activity so that students can organise their thoughts
5.divide the class into pairs or groups
6.introduce ‘pyramid discussion’
What is ‘pyramid discussion’?
students start work in small groups and join each other tow work as the whole class in the end
What is communicative activity?
an activity in which we get the students to use the lg they are learning, to interact in realistic and meaningful ways, usually involving exchanges of information
Give features of a communicative activity.
1.there is information gap (students have different items of information)
2.there is desire and purpose
3.there is free choice of lg used
4.there is not teacher’s interference during the activity
5.the activity is focused on the content not on the form is delayed
7.there is negotiation of meaning (=feedback between students themselves; students check what sb else has said)
8.there is no material control (materials should be as authentic as possible)
Can writing and speaking activities be communicative activities?
What is a communication strategy?
the way a speaker faces difficulties when speaking
Name different communication strategies. Provide examples.
1.avoidance (avoiding the topic one is not good at)
2.paraphrasing (using substitutes instead of a certain word)
3.approximation (using similar words)
4.word coinage (creating non-existing words, i.e. air-ball for balloon)
5.circumlocution (providing description of the word one does not know)
6.appealing for assistance (asking others for the word one does not know)
7.literal translation
What does a writer need to know?
1.purpose of writing
2.genre of the text
3.potential reader (how much they know about the topic, how accurate they are etc)
What must a writer take into consideration when writing?
What is the difference between ‘cohesion’ and ‘coherence’?
cohesion – linguistic links within the text; physical words, discourse markers, pronouns etc.
coherence – logical links, not directly shown in the text
What is discourse?
any stretch of lg with a communicative purpose
Give reasons for introducing writing practice. practise writing skills practise accuracy practise fluency provide feedback remember things better vary a lesson
Give reasons for introducing writing for children. practice spelling remember better
3.young learners need to practise motor skills and writing is such an activity
4.writing helps them focus on sth new to be remembered
What two approaches to writing are there?
1.product approach
2.process approach
Give features of the product approach to writing.
1.does not teach writing
2.students create their own texts and the final text is the aim of this approach
3.teacher evaluates the final text
Give features of the process approach to writing.
1.focuses on what students do, how they do and not on the final text
2.the final text is of less importance
3.writing process is divided here into stages
Compare the product and process approaches to writing.
product approach:
students work at home
process approach:
students work at school
product approach:
students work alone
process approach:
students can co-operate
product approach:
teacher focuses on the final text
process approach:
there is self and peer evaluation
product approach:
teacher evaluates the final text, is a judge
process approach:
teacher evaluates the process of writing
product approach:
there is more focus on form
process approach:
there is more focus on content
product approach:
writing is an isolate task
process approach:
there is integration with other skills
Give stages of the process approach to writing.
1.introduction (of the purpose, type of writing etc.)
2.generating ideas
teacher ask questions
visual aids
parallel writing
3.organising ideas (focusing)
selecting ideas
rejecting irrelevant ideas
organising ideas
outlining the text
4.the first draft
teacher does not look for mistakes but tries to see what needs a change
5.another / final draft
teacher’s evaluation
What is parallel writing?
writing based on a given model
What is fastwriting?
an activity in which students write as quickly as possible everything that comes to their heads on a given topic (brainstorming)
What can you say about dictation as a way of teaching writing? is not a way of teaching/practising writing might be useful to practice spelling and listening can be adapted so that it practices writing: teacher reads a text twice and students re-construct the text from their memory in writing
How to correct writing?
1.use a correction code
2.concentrate on one type of mistakes
3.respond to the content
4.use a different colour than red
5.add flowers, smiling faces etc. (especially with young learners)
6.try to provide a positive feedback
7.if possible, try to talk to your students about their mistakes individually
What writing skills can you think of?
1.handwriting (forming and joining letters)
2.mastering spelling, punctuation, sentence construction and referential words (he, who)
3.linking sentences
4.connecting paragraphs
5.being aware of different demands of written English
6.organising information logically and clearly with a specific type of reader in mind
7.using discourse markers
8.using variation in normal sentence patterns and word order to develop a theme clearly
9.selecting vocabulary to convey attitude and implied meaning
How to help poorer students with their writing?
1.stage preparation carefully (students should speak, read, and than write)
2.grade each step
3.give shorter, simpler tasks
4.give practice in planning, organising and expressing information
5.give model essays
6.practice relevant structures before they write
7.keep a record of common mistakes
8.insist on corrections – test them later
9.make students write in class
10.vary the topic sets writing as group work
Why should students write in class? learn the motor skill of handwriting develop neatness, clarity and speed learn spelling and punctuation keep a written record of what has been learnt reinforce vocabulary and structures already mastered orally practise for end-of-term achievement test
What is a mistake?
an error of performance; you know the rule but you do not apply it and you know what should be corrected
What is an error?
a result of incorrect or inaccurate learning; you are not able to apply the rule
What is an attempt?
you don’t know the rule and you experiment with the lg on your own
What types of mistakes can we distinguish?
1.local mistakes mistakes
Characterise local mistakes. not affect communication
2.are related to one segment
3.might be sometimes ignored
Characterise global mistakes.
1.affect communication
2.are related to the whole structure
3.make it hard to follow the content
4.need focusing on
Give the teacher’s approach to mistakes.
1.mistakes are unavoidable
2.students cannot be punished for their mistakes
3.students should e confident
4.the message matters more than the linguistic form
What is rapport?
the relationship between students and teacher in the class
What kinds of mistake correction do you know?
1.teacher correction
2.peer correction
Name the advantages of self-correction.
1.the best correction possible
2.students learn form it
3.students remember better
What is the greatest disadvantage of self-correction?
some students may not be able to do it
What is the greatest disadvantage of teacher correction?
quick; efficient; reliable;
easily forgotten by students
What are the advantages and disadvantages of peer correction?
more students think about the mistakes
more problems can be noticed
students co-operate and interact
some students may feel offended
students focus too much on mistakes
ss may not be able to correct their peers
Give different sources of mistakes.
1.over-generalisation of rules
a rule is introduced without exceptions and students make mistakes because they apply it wrongly
i.e. mouses, goed
2.negative transfer
students apply a rule form L1 to L2 which is different
i.e. When I will come back… What he is looking for? I live here for 10 years.
3.simplification by omission
students omit elements with no meaning
i.e. He listening to radio now. He is teacher.
4.communication strategies
how we deal with students we don’t know; it results in mistakes we are aware of, especially vocabulary
5.performance error
mistakes; slips of the tongue
6.poor teaching
errors as a result of poor planning
7.students’ inattention + poor memory
8.the learners’ internal syllabus
something inside all people which enables them to learn a foreign lg
What is fossilisation?
the process in which a mistake becomes a permanent feature of one’s lg
What are the five decisions a teacher has to make when an error is made?
1.what kind of mistake is it? I want to correct it?
3.when do I want to deal with it?
4.who is to correct it? do I want to correct it?
What is efficient to signal errors?
1.facial expressions
3.repeating the sentence up to the error
4.a single word used to indicate the problem: noun, verb etc.
5.reactive teaching
6.behaving like native speaker (i.e. asking for repetition, putting emphasis on the mistake), i.e.:
S: I go there yesterday.
T: Where did you go yesterday?
What is reactive teaching?
short explanation of a mistake, made on the spot
What distinction in grouping children according to their age can you make?
1.pre-school students (2-4)
2.primary students (5-7)
3.intermediate students (8-10)
4.transescent students (11-14)
Characteristics of 2-4 students.
1.absorb lg effortlessly
2.imitate sounds of speech not work well in groups
4.have a short attention span but great patience for repetitions of the same things
5.respond best to learning situations relating to their own interest and experiences
Characteristics of 5-7 students. to name objects and define words
2.learn through oral lg
3.learn through play
4.have a short attention span
5.need a large variety of activities
6.know that the world is governed by rules
7.use their lg skills subconsciously
Characteristics of 8-10 students.
1.can work well in groups
2.can begin a more systematic learning of lg
3.opened to people and new situations
4.start to understand cause and effect
5.resist co-operation with the opposite sex
Characteristics of 11-14 students.
1.have to learn how to deal with a variety of new experiences (sexuality, emotions)
2.need an introduction to the demands of academic disciplines
3.the goal at this age is the encouragement of possible relationships
What can children do by the age of 10?
1.understand abstract ideas
2.understand symbols
3.generalise and systematise
When does the period of dramatic changes take place in children?
at 7-8; things seem to fall into place for most of them and they begin to make sense of the adult world as we see it
How to organise a meaningful contest for both young learners and teachers?
1.let children know in advance what and how they are to learn during the forthcoming year
2.give the children English names
3.arrange classroom furniture suitably
4.improve learners’ speaking skills by means of games
What are the key concepts for early language learning (age 5-13)?
1.children learn foreign lgs best when the foreign lg is used for instruction
2.successful lg learning programmes emphasise comprehension rather than speaking
3.successful lg learning includes songs, games, rhymes and sports
4.successful lg learning is organised in terms of concrete experiences
5.successful lg learning is organised according to a communicative rather than grammatical syllabus
6.lg learning for children includes hand-on activities
7.lg learning activities incorporate opportunities for movement and physical activity
8.lg learning activities are interdisciplinary
9.lg learning activities are geared to the child’s development stage, interests and skills
10.lg learning is evaluated frequently and regularly
11.visuals, props and realia are an integral part of instruction
Describe the cognitive development.
1.0 – 2
behaviour is primarily motor
the child does not yet think consciously
2.2 – 7
development of lg and concept
the child tends to be very egocentric
3.7 – 11
the child develops the ability to apply logical thoughts to certain problems
4.11 – 15
the greatest level of cognitive development
the child becomes able to apply logical reasoning to all kinds of problems
Typology of learning strategies in learning to learn English.
METACOGNITIVE (i.e. more generalised)
1.advance preparation (planning and preparing oneself for a lg activity)
2.analysing needs (analysing linguistic need or wants in order to clarify long-term aims)
3.comparing (analysing and comparing different lg items form L1 to L2)
4.discussing (reflecting on, sharing ideas about and experiences of lg learning)
5.expanding subject awareness (finding out about English and lg learning)
6.expressing preferences (reflecting on preferred lg strategies)
7.joining a study group or club (meeting with other learners to learn or practise collaboratively outside class)
8.keeping a diary (writing a personal record of and reflecting on lg learning, daily events and experiences)
9.negotiating (discussing and reaching agreement with other learners and teachers)
10.prioritising (prioritising learning according to one’s personal needs and/or wants)
11.resourcing (finding out about and maximising the potential of available resources for learning inside and outside the classroom including the use of L2 reference materials)
12.reviewing (systematic revision in order to aid long-term retention)
13.selecting criteria (identifying appropriate criteria for self-assessment, pre- or post- performance)
14.self-management (understanding the conditions that help one learn and arranging for the presence of these conditions)
15.self-reward (rewarding oneself when a lg learning activity has been accomplished successfully)
16.setting short-term aims (selecting what to work on next and how to do it, based on self assessment and priorities)
17.specific self-assessment (checking one’s performance for accuracy, fluency and apropriacy against self-selected criteria either during or after an activity)
18.strategy evaluation (assessing the effectiveness and relevance of a specific learning strategy)

COGNITIVE (i.e. more specific) (recording oneself of the purpose of self-assessment)
2.auditory (listening to a lg model severa times in order to aid comprehension and retention)
3.collecting (building up resource banks of specific lg examples)
4.contextualisation (placing a word or phrase in a meaningful lg sequences)
5.copying (copying a text in order to practise writing)
6.defining (using L2 to clarify meaning and iad retention)
7.directed physical response (relating new information to physical actions)
8.drafting (preparing to write a final version of a text)
9.experimenting (trying out different learning strategies)
10.grouping (reordering, reclassifying or relabelling the material to the learner based on common atributes)
11.imagery (relating new information to visual concepts in the memory using familiar, easily retrivable visualisations or phrases)
12.inferencing (using available information to guess the meaning of new items, predict outcomes, fill in missing information and understand grammar rules)
13.listening for gist (listening to find out the general meaning)
14.memorising (learning lg items by heart)
15.noting down (writing down important items as they occur)
16.oral repetition (imitating a lg model to aid retention and production)
17.predicting (using clues from the context to guess possible content)
18.reading aloud (reading aloud from a text in order to practise pronunciation, stess, etc.)
19.reading for detail (reading a text very carefully)
20.reconstructing (rebuilding a text from a set of notes)
21.risk taking (feeling confident enough to try something out in L2 and not worring about making mistakes)
22.role-playing (acting out situations, either alone or with other learners)
23.scanning (looking quickly for a specific point in a written text)
24.selecting and rejecting (leistening for specific information and ignoring irrelevant detail)
25.skimming (reading a text quickly just to understand the main ideas)
26.summarising (producing a summary of an oral or written text to check comprehension)
27.translation (using L1 as a base for understanding and/or producing L2)
28.visual reinforcement (using visual stimilus to clarify meaning and aid retention)
29.word building (using one’s linguistic knowledge of L2 to derive words from or understand a particuar form)
30.written repetition (imitating a lg model several times in order to aid retention and production)

SOCIAL (SOCIOAFFECTIVE) (i.e. co-operating in lg learning activities)
1.discussing (see: Metacognitive)
2.joining a study or club (see: Metacognitive)
3.negotiating (see: Metacognitive)
4.resourcing (see: Metacognitive)
5.role-playing (see: Cognitive)

COMMUNICATON (i.e. improving communication)
1.appeals (asking a speaker to speak more slowly, clearly etc.)
2.approximation (using an incorrect L2 word to convey the meaning, since it shares essential semantic features with the target word)
3.checks (checking and confirming that the meaning of a message has been understood, i.e. by repeating information, reformulating or summarising)
4.creating time to think (using ‘thinking-time’ techniques when speaking in order to sound fluent and provide time to make an appropriate response)
5.foreignising (using a borrowed word of phrase from L1 and giving it an L2 pronunciation)
6.paraphrasing (describing some aspects of an item, i.e. appearances, function)
7.word coinage (inventing a new word based on knowledge of either L1 or L2)
8.‘wossernaming’ (the use of substitute words with no meaning to fill gaps, in the speaker’s vocabulary)
Describe the ‘Total Physical Response’ teaching method.
This method is based on the model of acquisition of the first lg by children. Three elements of first lg acquisition gave base for strategies of second lg teaching. The first one is the fact that children are capable of understanding many complex utterances before they can produce normal speech on their own. It is connected with children’s non-verbal reactions which are the second of the above mentioned elements. Children are often manipulated by adults by given commands. Asher claims that it is possible to teach lg through a series of commands, and that the most grammatical structures and problems may be taught in this way, The third element consists in spontaneous utterances in the native lg made by children after being exposed to lg. Asher used these three elements for foreign lg acquisition. The method stresses listening comprehension. In the first semester 70% of the lesson time is spent on listening, 20% on speaking, and 10% on reading and writing. Speech is postponed until later, when the listeners become ready to speak. Asher claims that developing listening comprehension helps the student to get ready for speaking.
The basic technique of the method is presenting the structure and practising it through a series of activities in which speech goes together with commands. The teacher is an instructor giving commands in the target lg. He performs actions at the same time. Students listen attentively and then perform actions themselves. Their physical response to the commands is the only form of response form the students, as at the beginning the do not speak. The teacher manipulates his students. They start with simple imperatives Stand up! and Stand down! However, gradually commands become more and more complicated, i.e. Gregory, find the picture of the beautiful woman with green eyes, long black hair and wearing a sun hat that has red stripes. When the students are ready to speak they give orders to the instructor and to other students. Students are taught grammar inductively in this method. They are expected to discover grammar rules themselves. The vocabulary is relatively rich from the very beginning but it is related to things which are in the classroom or to problems of everyday life which concerns all the students. Most vocabulary is printed on piece of cardboard with the native lg word on one side, and the its target lg version on the other.
The method of TPR proved to be very effective. It secures positive transfer from listening to reading and writing. The pronunciation of the students is also better than in other methods. Another good feature if the method is the exclusion of the native lg of the students in the classroom. Additionally, students’ anxiety is reduced as they are not required to respond in the foreign lg immediately. The method of TPR also shows by teaching through giving commands and performing them that understanding and thought are what is really essential in lg learning.
Describe the ‘Suggetopedia’ teaching method.
The goal of the method is to learn, at accelerated pace, a foreign lg for everyday communication by tapping mental powers, overcoming psychological barriers.
The teacher has the authority, commands, trust and respect of the students. The teacher ‘desuggests’ negative feelings and limits to learning. Learning is facilitated in a pleasant, comforting environment. If the teacher succeeds in ‘desuggesting’ fears, students assume a childlike role. The more confident the students feel, the more effectively they learn.
Describe the ‘Communicative Approach’ teaching method.
The “communicative movement” came into prominence in the early seventies. Its main representative are: Henry Widdowson, K. Morrow, R. Allvirght and R. White. The communicative approach developed mainly under the impact of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics claim that every speaker has a set of language at his disposal. These are stylistic varieties of language like colloquial, formal, etc. The basic convistion of the proponents of the communicative approach is that in order to use language the speaker does not simply produce sentences, but he attaches certain meanings to them to be able to communicate. This turns our attention to communicative functions that language realises. They are connected with the notion of communicative competence which is understood as the knowledge of varieties of language and ability to use them. It is an ability to make sense as a participant in discourse, whether spoken or written, ability to be appropriate, to know what to say at every moment.
Language should be taught for communication as well as through communication. The communicative approach emphasises the necessity to establish communicative competence as the goal of teaching. Hence, it is necessary to make the students aware of the fact that a single linguistic (grammatical) form may fulfil a variety of communicative functions, and vice versa, that one communicative function may be fulfiled by various linguistic forms, for example, imperatives may be used as commands, requests, advice. The target language should be taught in suach a way that students would be able to learn these variation.
The majority of communicativists claim that communication is possible only when there is an information gap. To them the information gap is a prerequisite of real communication. Thus, teachers should create conditions for filling information gaps.
The goal of teaching in the communicative approach is gaining communicative competence. Gaining communicative competence takes years, It is also very difficult to make a principled choice of the items making up communicative competence. The selection of materials with which to teach is always arbitrary. The communicative approach probably is not the best and only way to teach foreign languages, Its methodology is rather ill-defined. It is just a set of principles to be followed and not a concrete method.
Describe the ‘Silent Way’ teaching method.
This method puts into practice humanistic principles represented mostly by Carl Rogers in his humanistic psychology. According to Rogers “the goal of education is the facilitation of change and learning. Learning how to learn is more important than being taught something from the teacher, who unilaterally decides what shall be taught”. The whole humanistic approach is primaly concerned with reducing, as much as possible, the students’ anxieties and with the creation of non-threatening environment. The Silent Way recognises the central role of the student in the teaching process.
What is most intriguing in this method are long periods of silence during a class. Less than 10% of a class is spent on speaking. The teacher provides only necessary models for imitation. When the teacher produces utterances he manipulates coloured rods. After a model is presented a period of silence follows. Students process in silence what they have just heard. Silence helps them to store the material in their short-term memory. Students are responsible for their own learning which takes place within themselves. “This requires much concetration of mental energy of the students, and for this reason the teacher remains silent as much as possible in order not to distract them from their tasks”. Silence also fascilitates the transfer of material form short-term memory to long-term memory. Students are treated as intelligent people who can be made responsible for their own learning. After the period of silence students are encouraged to produce their own sentences. However they are not forced to do it. Thus, the atmosphere in the classroom becomes relaxed and is experienced as conductive to true learning. The class as a whole is invited to cooperate. There are not weak or strong students. All help each other to improve their utterances. All this makes the learner the central figure in the process of teaching from the very beginning. After being presented models the learners try to find grammatical rules on their own. When they commit errors the teacher does not correct them. Students should develop their own inner criteria of correctness, They should correct themselves. The teacher may, through gestures, only lead the learner to correct his error. Gattegno assumes that the student should correct his error and understand what was wrong in order to avoid making it again. Thus, “the teacher’s role is limited to monitoring the students’ progress, and to finding ways of making him into a competent learner”.
In general, teaching is subordinated to learning. The method uses much language and little vocabulary. Gattegno’s concept of “much language and little vocabulary” quickly makes the students believe that they can communicate in the target language. As far as classroom materials are concerned the teacher has at his disposal 10 coloured rods, word charts, a set of pictures, tapes and records, texts and films. Rods, and algebricks which are small wooden blocks are of different colours and lenghts. They help to avoid the native language of the students because of the meaning of any statement can be illustrated by the configuration of rods. Word charts, in turn, display the intended sounds “by means” of a colour code, i.e. /i:/ is in yellow.
The remarkable feature of the method is not the rods or the wall charts which quickly help students to read; most interesting is that the teacher says each new word only once, without repeating it several times during the class as it is usually in other methods. The students do the rest of the talking in response to gestures of the teacher. Even pronunciation and grammar mistakes are corrected through gestures without verbal repetition of a model. Teacher’s silence and his saying the new word only once are very effective for getting students’ attention in class.
The Silent Way has proved to be effective although for many years (and it has been used since the beginning of the fifties) it was known mainly because of the strange assumption that teacher should be silent when teaching a language.
Describe the ‘Community Language Learning’ teaching method.
It is a method of foreign language teaching developed by Charles Curran who had been inspired by social dynamics of a group and by psychoterapy. The method is also called ‘Counselling Learning’ model of education. During a class students sit in a circle facing each other and the teacher is outside the circle. Groups consist of 6-12 students. The teacher is required to be a helpful bilingual person and is reffered to as the knower of the language and the group counsellor. An intense atmosphere of warmth and belonging is produced during a class and it relates each person not only to the teacher-knower but to everyone else in the group. The student never feels isolated and alone but rather always secure and certain that each moment he can get help form everyone else. The student is engaged in a deep social experience bound by the rules of the Community Language Learning.
The first part of a class in CLL may be called the phase of investment. Then learners try to learn something. They always know the meaning of what has been said because it originates from their own volition. Thus, the content is students’ and the form of how something is said depends on the teacher. Each class is followed by reflection when the learner says what problems he has and they are discussed and explained. The main technique of this method is getting the learners to speak in the target language from the very beginning about whatever they want to talk. First the student says a sentence in his native language to the knower. The knower whispers the target language version of the sentence to the learner’s ear and then the learner repeats it loudly. Owing to the use of translation, this method involves meaningful practice. Target language utterances are recorded. Such a session continues for about 20 minutes. After the session is recorded the knower replays it to the students. The whole conversation is written on the blackboard and the teacher analyses it. No textbook is used in this method. The procedure of writing down the conversation forces the students to write their own textbook which may increase their motivation for learning.
The way of teaching in CLL consists in restructing learners’ competence in their native language into competence in the foreign one.
The advantage of the method is that it removes all the fear of the teacher and of making errors in the foreign language in front of the peers. The learners determine the kind of conversation they want to carry on. However, there is a danger that the teacher may lead his learners too little, especially in the first stage when the learners’ knowldedge of the foreign language is minimial. Another disadvantage of this method is that succes depends to a large extent on the teacher’s ability to translate. If he mistranslates osme subtle aspects of the language it may impede learnes’ understanding.
CLL is said to be a good method in dealing with learning difficulties, especially those encountered in second language acqusition.