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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The food we eat consists of these 3 things
carbohydrates,
lipids,
and proteins
These molecules have three fates:
1. Used as an energy supply
2. Serve as “building blocks” for more complex molecules in the body
3. Stored for future use
All the chemical reaction in the body are referred to as ?
Metabolism
Metabolism includes two types of reactions:
Catabolism
Anabolism
? breaks down more complex molecules into simpler molecules
Catabolism
? combines simpler molecules to form more complex molecules
Anabolism
Catabolic and anabolic reactions use the molecule ??? for energy transfer
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
- ATP is needed to activate enzymes, and is also an energy source in ? ?
chemical reactions
A carbohydrate is a molecule with the chemical formula ?
C6H12O6
A carbohydrate can be found as # things
monosaccharide
Disaccharides-(2 mono)
Polysaccharides (many monos)
Examples of monosaccharides are (3) ? ? and ?
glucose
fructose
galactose
Examples of disaccharides are
sucrose(table sugar)
lactose (milk sugar)
Sucrose is the compound of what 2 monosaccharides?
glucose & fructose
Lactose is the compound of what 2 monosaccharides?
glucose & galactose
Examples of polysaccharides are
starch
fiber (cellulose)
The body uses ? as its main energy source
glucose
All other ? are broken down or converted to glucose by various enzymes
carbohydrates
Glucose is used for production of ???
ATP
Glucose is used for Synthesis of ? ?, the building blocks of proteins
amino acids
Glucose is used for Synthesis of ?, a polymer of glucose
glycogen
This molecule is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles
glycogen
? provides a quick source of glucose;2% of the body’s energy reserves are in the form of this
glycogen
Glucose is used for Synthesis of ?, which are stored in adipose tissue
triglycerides
? can be formed from materials in the body
Glucose
The process of The breakdown of glycogen is called ?
glycogenolysis
the process of breakdown of triglycerides and proteins is called ?
gluconeogenesis
* Don’t confuse these two;
gluconeogenesis
glycogenolysis
? leads to the formation of new glucose (hence the –neo )
gluconeogenesis
While ? breaks down glycogen (hence the –lysis) to release stored glucose
glycogenolysis
? are used as structural molecules (like phospholipids in cell membranes), and as energy storage
Lipids
? are stored in adipose tissue throughout the body and in the liver
Lipids
? ? makes up the remaining 98% of the body’s energy reserves
Adipose tissue
Lipids are catabolized by enzymes called ?
lipases
the process of catabalizing enzymes into lipases is called ?
lipolysis
Lipids can be anabolized from glucose or amino acids through
Lipogenesis
This occurs whenever you eat excess carbohydrates or proteins
Lipogenesis
? are never stored for future use
Proteins
? are either used to produce ATP, or used to synthesize new proteins in the body(such as muscle fibers, or structural proteins like collagen and keratin)
Proteins
During digestion, proteins are catabolized into ? ?
amino acids
Any excess ? ? in the diet are converted to glucose during gluconeogenesis or to triglycerides during lipolysis
amino acids
There are ? amino acids in total
20
? are synthesized in the body
10
? are essential amino acids; they need to come from food
10
The ? ? begins immediately after a meal
absorptive state
The absorption state normally lasts about ? hours
4
? ? enters the bloodstream mainly as glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides
Ingested food
About ?% of glucose is used immediately for ATP production
50%
The rest of glucose is converted to ?(10%) or ? in adipose tissue (40%)
glycogen
tryglycerides
Most ? are directly stored in adipose tissue
lipids
- Used for ATP production or to synthesize glucose or fatty acids(part of triglycerides)

- Also used to synthesize proteins throughout the body
Amino Acids
The ? ? occurs after the absorptive state ends, beginning about 4 hours after a meal
postabsorptive state
The main aim of the ? ? is to keep glucose levels up in the body
postabsorptive state
Glucose is formed several (3) different ways
1.Breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis)
2. Breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue (lipolysis)
3. Gluconeogenesis from the breakdown of proteins in skeletal muscle
? is the overall rate at which the body’s metabolic reactions use up energy
Metabolism
The ? ? at rest is the basal metabolic rate (BMR)
metabolic rate
the ? ? is burned around 1200-1800 kilocalories (food calories) per day
metabolic rate
? ? can burn anywhere from 500 to 3000 kilocalories per day
Physical Activity
A ? is a unit of heat, used to measure energy usage
kilocalorie
In order to maintain a ? ?, kilocalorie intake should not exceed the kilocalories expended in your daily activities
healthy weight
Most people need to take in ~ ?- ? kilocalories every day
1600-2400
Men usually require more ? than women
calories
Active people require more ? than sedentary people
calories
In terms of nutrients, each gram of carbohydrates or proteins provides ? kilocalories, but a gram of lipids provides ? kilocalories!
4
9
This means that it requires more energy expenditure to burn off ?
lipids
People should eat a variety of foods, especially an assortment of fruits and vegetables for the ? and ? and ? they contain
vitamins
minerals
fiber (cellulose)
these 3 things should be used sparingly
Fats sugars and oils
Essential ? include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium
minerals
Essential ? include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, and the complex of B-vitamins
vitamins
Vitamin ? deficiency causes night blindness
A
Vitamin C deficiency causes ?,which leads to bleeding gums, loose teeth, and poor collagen formation
scurvy
Vitamin D deficiency causes ?,which leads to softening of the bones and weak muscle tone
rickets
Vitamin B9 (folic acid) deficiency during pregnancy leads to malformation of the fetal neural tube, and the baby can be born with ? ?
spina bifida
In ? ? the neural tube doesn’t close properly, and people with this condition have trouble moving their skeletal muscles below the affected area
spina bifida
Grains and cereals in the US are now fortified with ? ? to prevent spina bifida; since this was introduced, the number of new cases has decreased
folic acid