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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Metabolism?
All the reastions used to generate energy-> 2ATP are generated.
Reducing power(Ex: NADH2) and carbon skeletons and the utilization of theses materials for Anablic purposes.
polymer of glucose. breaks down thing to big to fit through porins(600-700 da)
Catabolic Reactions
1st step in metablism: Ploymer breakdown of extra-cellulary. can generate monomers and small dimers. (molecules that can go through the porins)following transport into the cytoplasm.
The sugar must be what to enter the cytoplasm
activated. involves phosphorylation.
Glycolytic pathway
The breakdown of sugar.
Glucose ->____->____->____
(six Carbon Stage)
Glucose 6-phosphate(uses ATP and gives off ADP)
Fructose 6-phosphate
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate(uses ATP and gives off ADP)
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate--> and --> both go to -->___-->___-->___-->____-->___-->___
(Three carbon stage
Glyseraldehyde 3-phosphate and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate-then goes to glyseraldehyde 3-p(Catalized by aldolase)
1,3 bisphosphoglycerate Acid(uses NAD and makes NAPH, only oxidative step in glycolosis)
3-phosphoglyceric Acid(Uses ADP and makes ATP)
2-Phosphoglyceric Acid
Phosphoenol pyruvate(dessication reaction->loss of water)
Pyruvate (uses ADP and makes ATP.
For two glyceraldehydes oxidations to pyruvate we see a net gain of ___ ATPs
what does Glucose to pyruvate produce
produces 2 ATP and 2 NADH2
Every living cell must have __ precuror molecules(carbon skeleton)
What is the function of carbon skeletons
Serve as basic carbon backbones for amino acid biosynthesis, vitamin synthesis; purine/pyrimidins for nucleotides synthesis.
What are the 6 precursor molecules from glycolsis?
glucose 6-phophate
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Fructose 6-phosphate
3-phosphoglycerate Acid
What are the 2 precursor molecules from pentose phosphae pathway
Ribulose 5-phosphate
Erythrose 4-phosphate
What are the 4 precurser molecules from the TCA cycles
acetyl CoA
succinyl CoA
alpha ketoglutarate
Pentose Phosphate pathway
get 2 NADH to use as reducing power.
If no glucose 6-p dehydrogenase wont grow what do u have to add?
Ribulose 5-p and Erthrose 4-p bc it wont be able to make them. (both are important precursors)
If all genes are functional to convert precursor molecules to building blocks(amino acids) then it must be a _______
If a cell is mutant in its ability to make a precursor molecule then it may be considered a _____
Entner-Doudoroff Pathway is limited to what microbes
Pseudamones sp
Enterococcus sp
Rhizobium sp
What does the Entner Doudoroff Pathway do
uses similar reactions to the pentose phosphate pathway and links them with the glycolytic pathway
What is a novel intermediate formed by the Entner Doudoroff Pathway and what is its significance
It can be used to diagnose diseases with Pseudomones, Rhizobium and Entercoccus.
From glycoloysis or Entner-dudoroff the pyruvate formed can then either be used for ____ or ____ and with way depends on ?
Fermentation or Tricarboylic Acid Cycle.
Which way depends on environmental conditions.
1)Availabilty of termical electron acceptor
2)Availablity of carbon.
The ___ cycle is never closed bc the intermediated can get taken away by biosynethsis purposes
tricarboxylic acid
With the EMP and the TCA reaction we see ______.
complete oxidation of a 6C sugar (Glucose) to CO2
Fementation occurs in the ___ of a __ __ __ electron acceptor.
suitable exogenous terminal(something from outside)
What are suitable exogenous electron acceptors? and why?
Bc that can get reduced(accept e-) from more reduced molecule.
Fermentations generates
more reduced compounds
Why bother with fermentations
to regenerate NAD to be used in glycolosis.
In the presence of a suitable exogenous terminal e- acceptor what happens?
Electron Transport
what is electron transport
mvmt of e- through electron transport chain eventually reducing a terminal e- acceptor
What are the ETC components?
Hydrogen carriers->Quinones(small non-proteinaceous molecules) and FlavoProteins
Electron carriers-> cytochromes and iron sulfur proteins.
What did Peter Michell do?
"Chemiosmotic Hypothesis"- proton gradient can be harvested into energy.
Harvesting of H+ gradient(from e- transport) through H+ translocating ATP hydrolase to generate ATP.
BFO/F Complex does what?
catalyzes phosphorylation of ADP + P --> ATP
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation
Sugar is oxidized to CO2
Reducing power is formed
PMS formed
ATP formed
The coupling of sugar(NADH) oxidation to ATP formation via the ETC activities is
Oxidative Phosphorylation
What is substrate level phosphorylation
When ATP is formed by the removal of a PO4 from an organic compound and coupled directly to the phosphorylation of ADP->ATP.
Ex: 1,3 Bisphosphoglycolic acid-->(uses ADP and creates ATP) 3 phosphglycolic acid.
In the ETC if oxygen serves as the terminal e- acceptor it is _____
If CO2, NO3, or SO4 serve as the terminal e-acceptor then it is ____.
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic respiration