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51 Cards in this Set

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What was the purpose of Egyptian pyramids?
burial for the kings to ensure a peaceful afterlife
What was the first form of writing?
cuneiform
Which civilization developed cuneiform?
Sumer
What does Mesopotamia mean?
land between 2 rivers
What are the two rivers of Mesopotamia?
Tigris and Euphrates
Why did early people settle along river valleys?
They offered fertile soil
What does nomadic mean?
wander
Why were early hunter-gatherers nomadic?
wander in search of food, water, shelter
During what era was fire invented?
Paleolithic
What were the characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies?
they invented the first tools, including simple weapons, learned how to make fire, lived in clans, developed oral language, and created cave art
What was the Neolithic Revolution?
People became food producers as they learned to farm and herd
How did the beginning of agriculture change lives?
advanced tools, pottery, specialization of labor, increased importance of government
What is carbon dating used for?
to date and analyze fossils and other remains
Along what river did Egyptian civilization emerge?
Nile
Along what river did Sumerian civilization emerge?
Tigris and Euphrates
What is the Fertile Crescent?
area of fertile soil from the Persian Gulf, through Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean sea

frequently invaded and ruled by many different civilizations over its history
Irrigation
to supply dry land with water through channels, ditches and other man-made construction
Surplus
Extra
Dynasty
family of rulers
Monarch
king or queen who inherits power
Pharaoh
Egyptian ruler/king or queen
centralized government
to have the power in one person's control
polytheistic
belief in many gods
codify
to arrange or organize, especially in reference to laws
cultural diffusion
to spread goods and ideas frequently through trade
Following the Stone Age, was this metallic age
Bronze
What metal replaced bronze for construction of tools and weapons
iron
Who was the Babylonian king who increased the power of his kingdom but is best known for his code of laws?
Hammurabi
Upon what principle were Hammurabi's code of laws built?
an eye for an eye
Polytheistic
belief in many gods
What are hieroglyphics?
Egyptian form of writing
Why was the Rosetta Stone an important archaeological find?
it contributed greatly to our ability to decipher heiroglyphics
The Old Stone Age is also known as--
the Paleolithic Age
The New Stone Age is also known as the--
Neolithic Age
What is a ziggurat?
religious temple that was at the center of Mesoptomian city-states
Which civilization built the Great Pyramids?
Egypt
Kush
civilization in present-day Sudan along the Upper Nile that traded with Egypt and adopted a lot of Egyptian culture
Delta
fan-shaped area of fertile soil where a river empties into a larger body of water
Sargon
king of Akkad who conquered people of Mesopotamia building what many consider to be the first empire
Narmer/Menes
Egyptian king who united the Upper and Lower Kingdoms of Egypt marking the beginning of Egypt as a nation
Why did governments begin in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia?
to control the flow of the rivers (irrigation), offer protection, land distribution
Kemet
black land; what Egyptians referred to their nation as
What was the major economic activity of the people of ancient river valleys like Egypt and Mesopotamia
farmers
Howard Carter
discovered the tomb of King Tut
Jean Fracois Champollion
decoded the Rosetta Stone
Why was Egypt called the Gift of the Nile?
Without the Nile the people wouldn't have settled in this region...it provided them with fertile soil, food, transportation...in essence life.
artisan
a skilled craftsperson in a particular field
city-state
a city and its surrounding territories that functions as its own independent government (sovereign)
agriculture
cultivation of soil to produce crops, and raising livestock; farming.
economy
system production and distribution and consumption of a good, product or service
political
dealing with government