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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mesozooplankton - overview
- "Net Zooplankton"
- 200-200um
- feed on "lg" phytoplankton & microzooplankton
- all size-specific particle feeders
Copepods - overview
- most abundant mesoplankton
- some Holoplanktonic (spend entire life as plankton)
- some Meroplanktonic (change from planktonic to benthic or nekton)
- Bullet shaped
- Antennae for swimming
Calanoid copepods
- Antennae longer than body
- single egg sac
Cyclopoid copepods
- 2 egg sacs
- single eye
- Planktonic (some benthic)
Harpacticoid copepods
- smaller cephalothorax
- Bristles
- shortest antennae
Copepod Life cycle
2)Copepodites (through series of molts finally becomes:)
3) Adult
- 2 weeks to 2 yrs
Crustaceans - Cladocerans
-"Water fleas", Daphnia
- Mainly freshwater
- compound eye on side of head
- snout for feeding
- jointed legs through slit
Fairly long antennae
- carry eggs on back
- know for being parthenagenic (can arise from non-fert eggs = females)
- pops will be all female in easy conditions, males arise as conditions worsen - fertilize eggs making them dormant
Crustaceans - Amphipoda
- laterally compressed (narrow)
- Carnivorous and parasitic
- small proportion of zooplankton
- Direct development: egg -> adult
Crustaceans - Euphasids
-Euphausia superba: Arctic Krill, for Baleen Whales, commercial importance (aquaculture/ fish feed)
Crustaceans - Mysids
-"Oppossum Shrimp"
- found close to bottom
- Demsersal zooplankton: lives in sediments during daytime & exits at night
- esp. on coral reefs
- Attracted to light at night
Crustaceans - Ostracods
- seed shaped
- Clodoceran kritter in shell
- "Arrow Worms", "Bristle mouth worms"
- swim weakly
- great predators
- use bristles near mouth to catch fish & other zooplankton
- sense vibrations & attack
- most abundant character
- only marine
Tomopteris: holoplanktonic, carnivorous (only one)
Mollusks: Pteropods
-modified foot - wing-like structure
- spiral shell - more adv. = diff shape or no shell at all
- produce mucus "web" & catch particles
Mollusks: Heterpods
- foot modified into fin
- spiral shell
- visual predators - feed on other types
Mollusks: Gymnosomes
- no shells
- specialized predators of pteropods & heteropods
Urochordates - Larvaceans
- tadpole-like
- builds a mucus house equipped w/ screens on front end and another set of back screens
- uses tail to draw water through screen to trap food and sends rest out back screen
- house can be <4 cm
- can collect nano & pico plankton
if filter cloggs, bores out and abandons house
-this sinks - part of "Marine snow"
Urochordates - salps
- warm surface waters only
- cyllindrical body w/ muscles to pass water through (pulsates)
- mucus net inside to filter water
- often form colonies (aggregates)
-gelatinous zooplankton
- some have dominant life stage as plankton, some alternate w/ benthic
- medusa form = planktonic
- weak swimmers
- Nematocystys: vary in size
- Siphanophores: colony, attaches to float, each projections an individual, interconnected gut, division of labor: feeding and reproducing
- Comb jellies
- different shape
- series of combs (ctene), rows of cilia
- beat and allows for weak swimming
- Illuminecense
- no nematocysts, but still voacious feeders
- snail larva: Velegers
-segmented worms: polychaetes
- echinoderm larva
- Crustacean zoo & naupuli
- cyprus - larval barnacles
- Ichtyoplankton: variety of sizes & shapes, eggs, larvae, lived off yolk sac
Methods for collecting
-Traditional: Net, verticle or horizontal, 2 at once = bongo net
- MOCNESS: monitors depth, salinity, light, chlorophyll
- raise/ open/close whenever - multiple measurements at once
- blue water diving - on line, collect indivs by hand
P invest: very low (lots of eggs)
Amt of Yolk: small (48 hrs)
Disp potenial: very good
Survivorship: low
P invest:Moderate (relatively few produced)
Yolk supply: Intermediatee (14 days)
Disp potenial: moderate
Survivorship: moderate
Direct developing species
P invest: very high
Amt Yolk: Very high(produce mini adult)
Disp Potential: zero
Survivorship: very high
Diurnal migration
- typical
- down deep during day, rise to surface at night
- zooplankters start to rise before dusk, start down beofre dawn
- reenforces biological clock, light is trigger for migration
- come up right before sunrise, go down right after
Why migrate
1) avoid predators - more active during day, visual
2) foraging - copy prey, primetime to eat phytoplankton
3) temperature- related to metabolism - partition of energy resources
Seasonal Verticle migration
- single migration
-Neoclanus: deep as adult, releases eggs deep
- each larval stage ascends to light & goes back down deeper as mature into adult