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75 Cards in this Set

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anxiety
overall apprehension (fearful expectation) that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty an helplessness
mental health
the successful adaptation to stressors from the internal or external environment, evidenced by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are age-appropriate and congruent with local and cultural norms
mental illness
maladaptive responses to stressors from the internal or external environment evidenced by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are incongruent with the local and cultural norms and interfere with the individual's social, occupational, and/or physical functioning.
ego
your consciousness of your own identity

the reality component of the personality that governs problem solving and rational thinking
psychosis
loss of ego boundaries

gross impairment of reality testing (loss of contact with reality)
grief
subjective state of emotional, physical, and social responses to the loss of a valued entity
adaptation
a physical or behavioral response to any change internally or externally that results in preservation of integrity or timely return to equilibrium

positive, healthy response
maladaptation
physical or behavioral response to internal or external change that disrupts the integrity of the individual.

negative, unhealthy
stress
individual's reaction (physical, mental, emotional) to any change that requires an adjustment or response
stressor
biological, psychological, social, or chemical factor that causes physical or emotional tension. May be a factor in the cause of certain illnesses
stress

biological response
fight or flight response. General adaption syndrome three stages:
alarm
resistance
exhaustion
stress

environmental event
thing or event that triggers the adaptive physiological and psychological response

emphasis on change from the existing stage of individual's life pattern

does not necessarily consider person's perception of change
stress

transaction btwn individual and environment
emphasizes the relationship between the individual and environment.

Personal characteristics and nature of environment are considered
precipitating event
stimulus arising from environment and is perceived by the individual in a specific manner
primary appraisal
irrelevant, benign positive, stressful
irrelevant= outcome holds no significance

benign positive= outcome is seen as producing pleasure

stress= harm/loss, threat, challenge

harm/loss= damage or loss

threat=anticipated damage or loss

challenge= potential for gain/growth (rather than risks)
secondary appraisal
when stress is produced in response to harm/loss, threat, or challenge

is an assessment of skills, resources, and knowledge that the person possesses to deal with the situation
Which coping strategies?
Will the option I choose be effective?
Do I have the ability to use that strategy?
Predisposing factors
a variety of elements that influence how an individual perceives and responds to stress
genetics, past experience-, existing conditions
genetics as predisposing factor
hereditary

family history of conditions, temperment,
past experience as predisposing factor
learned patterns that influence adaptation

previous exposure to stressor, learned coping responses, degree of adaptation to other stressors
existing conditions as predisposing factor
current health, motivation, maturity, severity of stressor, finances, age,
pressured speech
tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener
distractible speech
During mid speech, the subject is changed in response to a stimulus.

e.g. "Then I left San Francisco and moved to... where did you get that tie?"
Tangentiality
Replying to questions in an oblique, tangential or irrelevant manner.

e.g: "What city are you from?"
A: "Well, that's a hard question. I'm from Iowa. I really don't know where my relatives came from, so I don't know if I'm Irish or French."
Loose association
Ideas slip off the track on to another which is obliquely related or unrelated.

"The next day when I'd be going out you know, I took control, like uh, I put bleach on my hair in California."
word salad
Speech that is unintelligible because, though the individual words are real words, the manner in which they are strung together results in incoherent gibberish,

The question "Why do people comb their hair?" elicits a response like

"Because it makes a twirl in life, my box is broken help me blue elephant. Isn't lettuce brave? I like electrons. Hello, beautiful.
illogicality
Conclusions are reached that do not follow logically (non sequiturs or faulty inferences)

"Do you think this will fit in that box?" draws a reply like "Well duh; it's brown, isn't it?"
clanging
Sounds, rather than meaningful relationships, appear to govern words.

"I'm not trying to make noise. I'm trying to make sense. If you can't make sense out of nonsense, well, have fun."
neologisms
New word formations.

e.g. "I got so angry I picked up a dish and threw it at the geshinker."
word approximations
Old words used in a new and unconventional way.

e.g. "His boss was a seeover."
evasive interaction
Attempts to annunciate ideas and/or feelings about another individual comes out as evasive or in a diluted form.

e.g. "I... er ah... you are uh... I think you have... uh-- acceptable erm... uh... hair."
circumstantiality
Speech that is very delayed at reaching its goal. Excessive long windedness.

e.g. "What is your name?" "Well, sometimes when people ask me that I have to think about whether or not I will answer because some people think it's an odd name even though I don't really because my mom gave it to me and I think my dad helped but it's as good a name as any in my opinion but yeah it's Tom."
loss of goal
Failure to show a train of thought to a natural conclusion.

e.g. "Why does my computer keep crashing?", "Well, you live in a stucco house, so the pair of scissors needs to be in another drawer."
perserveration
Persistent repetition of words or ideas.

e.g. "It's great to be here in Nevada, Nevada, Nevada, Nevada, Nevada."
echolalia
Echoing of one's or other people's speech that may only be committed once, or may be continuous in repetition

e.g. "What would you like for dinner?", "That's a good question. That's a good question. That's a good question. That's a good question."
blocking
Interruption of train of speech before completion.

e.g. "Am I early?", "No, you're just about on-"
stilted speech
Speech excessively stilted and formal.

e.g. "The attorney comported himself indecorously."
self-reference
Patient repeatedly and inappropriately refers back to self.

e.g. "What's the time?", "It's 7 o'clock. That's my problem.
phonemic paraphasia
Mispronunciation; syllables out of sequence.

e.g. "I slipped on the lice broke my arm."
semantic paraphasia
Substitution of inappropriate word.

e.g. "I slipped on the coat, on the ice I mean, and broke my book."
humors
blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm

Hippocrates associated mental illness and insanity with an imbalance of these
ship of fools
During Middle Ages mentally ill people were put on a ship and told to search for their lost rationality
mental health
according to Maslow
self actualization (highest point on pyramid) is a psychologically healthy, fully human, highly evolved, and fully mature.
incomprehensibility

as a factor of mental illness
inability of the general population to understand the motivation behind the behavior
cultural relativity

as a factor of mental illness
behavior recognized as mentally ill in one society may be viewed as normal in another and vice-versa.
anticipatory grieving
begin work of grieving before loss actually occurs

can be a problem in case of family anticipating death of a loved one. May detach and the loved one will feel rejected
bereavement overload
accumulation of grief especially in the case of someone who has lost a lot within a short amount of time

elderly person losing friends, husband, independent function, possessions, pets
resolution of grief
when the person remember the loss and accept both the pleasures and disappointments of the association. Preoccupation with the lost entity has been replaced with energy and desire to pursue new situations and relationships.
milieu therapy
scientific structuring of th environment to effect behavioral change and to improve the psychological health and functioning of the individual
therapeutic community
care in inpatient facilities is shorter so this is a focus on making every interaction therapeutic.

Everything that happens to the client or within the environment is part of the treatment.
goal of milieu therapy
client to learn adaptive coping, interaction, and relationship skills that can be generalized to their own life
conditions that promote a therapeutic community
Basic physiological needs are fulfilled.

The physical facilities are conductive to achievement of the goals of therapy.

A democratic form of self-government exists.

Responsibilities are assigned according to client capabilities.

A structured program of social and work-related activities is scheduled as part of the treatment program.

Community and family are included in the program of therapy in an effort to facilitate discharge from treatment
basic assumptions about Milieu therapy
The health in each individual is to be realized and encouraged to grow.

Every interaction is an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.

The client owns his or her own environment.

Each client owns his or her own behavior.

Peer pressure is a useful and powerful tool.

Inappropriate behaviors are dealt with as they occur.

Restrictions and punishment are to be avoided.
delirium
mental state with a disturbance of cognition manifested by confusion, excitement, disorientation, and a clouding of consciousness. Hallucinations and illusions are common.

Develops rapidly over a short period of time. Reversible.

re-orientation is appropriate. primary goal is to determine cause
dementia
loss of previous levels of cognitive, executive, and memory function in a state of full alertness

Reorientation not appropriate. Determining cause is not as important. If it is Alzheimer's then anticholinesterase meds can be used
primary dementia
like Alzheimer's in which the dementia itself is the major sign of brain disease
secondary dementia
caused or related to another illness, like HIV or cerebral trauma
aphasia
not speaking at all
apraxia
inability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function

ataxia is one type...which largely involves gait
confabulation
creating imaginary events to fill in memory gaps
sundowning
dementia symptoms worsen in afternoon and evening
emotional lability
a fluctuation of emotions more marked and intense than the existing circumstances might be expected to produce
dysarthria
difficulty articulating words
pseudodemntia
depression in elderly. mimics dementia but
progression is more rapid
memory is more like forgetfulness, no confabulation
oriented to time and place, no wandering
gets better as the day progresses
appetite diminished
attention and concentration intact
ataxia
ymptom consisting of gross lack of coordination of muscle movements. Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum.
apraxia
Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned purposeful movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. It is a disorder of motor planning which may be acquired or developmental, but may not be caused by incoordination, sensory loss, or failure to comprehend simple commands
ideas of reference
Persons with ideas of reference may experience:
A feeling that people on television or radio are talking about or talking directly to them
Believing that headlines or stories in newspapers are written especially for them
Having the experience that people (often strangers) drop hints or say things about them behind their back
Believing that events (even world events) have been deliberately contrived for them, or have special personal significance for them
Seeing objects or events as being set up deliberately to convey a special or particular meaning
Thinking persons or groups of persons are plotting against them and that precautions must be taken to avert the threat
alogia
poverty of speech...a lack of unprompted speech...one-two word answers
avolition
general lack of desire, drive, or motivation to pursue meaningful goals
four main "negative" symptoms of schizophrenia
flat affect, alogia, and anhedonia, avolition
anhedonia
inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events such as eating, exercise, social interaction or sexual activities.
erotomanic delusion
believes someone usually of higher status is in love with them
grandiose delusion
irrational ideas regarding their own self worth, talent, knowledge, or power. May believe they have a special relationship with a famous person or they may assume the identity of that person
jealous delusions
center around the idea that the person's sexual partner is unfaithful without evidence
persecutory deluison
most common. believes that they are being malevolently treated, conspired against, drugged, poisoned etc.
Somatic delusions
believe they have a physical defect, disorder, or disease.
ie, foul odors, insects, parasites, mishapen body parts, dysfunctional parts.