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41 Cards in this Set

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It is important to remember that mental health and mental illness run on a _________ - it changes somewhat from day to day.
continuum
Mental health and mental illness are like the "Scales of Justice" because an increase in stress = _______________
decrease in your immune system
What theory includes the "nurture," or inorganic or functional, rationales?
Psychoanalytic Theory
What does the "nurture" issue imply?
That significant people in a young person's life set the stage for a life of compensating
What theory includes the "nature," or organic rationale?
Psychobiologic Theory
What does the "nature" issue imply?
Altered mental status is a product of a genetic, physical, or neurochemical malfunction of the brain
What are some medical tests that can be run to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of a mental illness?
Blood work (to R/O electrolyyte imbalances dehydration, drug toxicity)
CT or MRI (to R/O tumors, lesions)
PET scans (to identify how parts of the brain are functioning by showing chemical activity or metabolism)
What are some things you need to do as a nurse of a patient with mental illness?
• let them get their feelings out
• explain any tests that are needed
• have them talk to the Dr
The __________ theory considers the sympathoadrenal "fight or flight" responses to stress which cause anxiety
Biologic
The "fight or flight" responses to stress which cause anxiety are 1)
1) Blood vessels constrict
2) Blood pressure rises
3) Heart rate increases
4) Pupils dialate
The __________ theory says that there is a conflict between the id and the superego which causes anxiety
Psychoanalytic
If their needs aren't met —> it leads to anxiety —>_____________ —>_____________ —>_____________
—> anxiety —> action —> relieve tension
In _____________ _____________ _____________, the anxiety itself is the expressed symptom or excessive worrying.
Generalized anxiety disorder
What are the S/S of generalized anxiety disorder?
• Muscle aches • Shakes
• Palpitations • Dry Mouth
• Nausea • Vomiting
• Hot Flashes • Chills
• Polyuria • Difficulty Swallowing
What is a state of extreme fear that cannot be controlled?
Panic disorder
What are the S/S of panic disorder?
• Fear • Dissociation
• Nausea • Diaphoresis
• Chest pain • Increased Pulse
• Shaking • Unsteadiness
• Dyspnea
What is the most common of the anxiety disorders and is defined as an "irrational fear"?
Phobia
It is the nurses job to expose a patient with phobia to the object they are afraid of. True or False
False

It isn't the nurses job.
OCD is an anxiety disorder with two parts, they are?
the Obsession and the Compulsion
The repetitive thought, urge, or emotion is?
Obsession
The repetitive act that may appear purposeful is?
Compulsion
What is the anxiety disorder that is developed in response to an unexpected emotional or physical trama that could not be controlled?
Post-Tramatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
What is some ways a nurse can help a patient with PTSD?
Encourage the expression of thoughts and feelings surrounding the experience and to validate the patient's feelings regarding the situation
What is the main goal in patients with PTSD?
For the patient to describe what led to the PTSD
What are some nursing interventions for people with anxiety disorders?
• Maintain open communication
• What is important to the patient
• Model skills that assist in facing stressful situations
What should you do if your patient is having a panic attack?
You should stay with the patient during the attack
What is discharge teaching for people with anxiety disorders?
Anxiety is something we all experience at one time or another
The _______________ theory of mood disorders indicates that people who have suffered loss in their lives are those that develop depressions.
Psychoanalytic
The _______________ theory of mood disorders believe that the way people perceive events and situations lead to depression.
Cognitive
The _______________ theory of mood disorders believe that chemical imbalances and genetic links lead to depression.
Biologic
Approximately twice as many _________ as men report feeling depressed.
woman
What are the factors that affect the type of depression?
Severity and duration of symptoms
Approximately 2 million Americans suffer from _______________ depression (also manic-depressive)
bipolar depression
In the mania phase of bipolar depression what are some of the signs?
•Excessive highs
•Sustained period of behavior
•Increased energy, restlessness, racing thoughts
•Decreased need for sleep
•Unrealistic beliefs in one's abilities (self importance)
In the depression phase of bipolar depression what are some of the signs?
•Persistant sad, anxious, or empty mood
•Feelings of hopelessness
•Loss of interest in activities or sex
•Decreased energy
•Difficultly concentrating, remembering
What type of depression affects people over 45 and has been named empty nest syndrome?
Involutional Depression
What is some of the medical treatment for people with depressive disorders?
Lithium
Antidepressants
Psychotherapy
ECT
What drug is most commonly used for the treatment of bipolar disorder?
Lithium
What are the signs of toxicity in Lithium use?
severe diarrhea, persistent nausea & vomiting, muscle weakness, tremors, blurred vision, slurred speech, & seizures
What are the nursing considerations for Lithium use?
Keep all appointments to check blood work & evaluation of drug effectiveness
Inform Dr if dehydrated, have fever or illness because fluid and sodium are essential
What are the side effects of Lithium?
thirst & dry mouth, nausea & vomiting, abdominal pain, & fatigue