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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Milieu
Creating a therapuetic evironment, nursing interventions
Differential Diagnosis
-Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Panic Disorders
-Phobias
-Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Antimanic drugs (LITHIUM)
Action: unknown
Uses: bipolar deprssn and manic depressive illness
Side effects: thirst, dry mouth, fatigue, abdominal pain
Examples: Ekalith, Lithonate
Nursing considerations:
monitor dosage, no exceed 1.5 (normal level is .4 to 1.0) toxic = confusion, muscle twitch, stuor, coma; educate no increase NA+ (salt) Bld monitor
Techniques used in psychotherapy
-Free association (say what come to mind)
-Dream Analysis (dream log)
-Hypnosis (relaxation)
Antianxiety Agents (minor tranquilizers)
Action: depress actv of cerebral cortex, habit forming
Uses: relieve stress, anxiety and neurotic behavior
Side Effects: unable to concentrate, headache, dizziness, lethargy, hypotension
Examples: (antihistamines, benzodiazapines) Librium, Valium, Buspar, Ativan, Xanax
Nuring Considerations: monitor BP, give at bedtime, Educate
Stimulants (Amphetamines)
Action: direct stimulant of central nervous system
Uses: sleep disorders, and ADD in children
Side effects: irrregular heartbeat, dry mouth, depression
Examples: Ritalin, Dexatrim, OTC (cigs, sleep aid...)
Nursing considerations: Educate, frequent fluid
common side effects of Antidpressents
-sedation
-dry mouth
-vertigo
-bld disease
-constipation
-sexual dysfunction
-low BP/hypotension
Psychotherapy
Form of treatment chosen by psychologist/psychiatrist to treat an individual
parkinsonism
(ESPE)...drooling, fatique, mask-like facial expression, muscle rigidity
psychoanalysis
(Freud)
-attempt to take pt into past
-focus on cause of problem buried in unconscious
Antidepressant side effects show up in ? to ? to ?
show in 2 to 3 wks
Goals of Psychotherapy
-Decrease emotional discomfort
-increase socail functions
-increase appropriate manner performance
Dystonia
(EPSE)...distortions of muscle groups, muscle spasm (head and neck) and difficulty swallowing
Humanistic Therapy
(Person Centered Therapy)
(Maslow, Rogers)
-focus on whole person
-Work in present time
MAOI's or Monoamine Oxidase inhibitors (Tetracylic antidepressents)
Action: prevent metabolism of monamine oxidase
Uses: Treat depression
Examples: Nardil, Marplan, Parnate
Side effects: High BP, headache, dizzy, wght gain...
Nursing considerations: AVOID food high in Tyrmine (aged cheese, eggs, soy sauce, yogurt, sour cream, certain beer and wines, bananasm avocados)which can lead to High BP crisis)
Behavior Modification
(Skinner, Pavlov)
-decrease negative behavior
-replace negative with positive
Cylic (bicylic antidepressant...SRI's or serontonin reuptake inhibitors)
Action: increase seretonin levels
Uses: treat depression
side effects: dependence, low BP, dry mouth, sedation, bld diseases
Examples: Prozac, zoloft, xanax, valium, librium, buspar, vistaril
Nursing Considerations: educate, monitor BP
Electroconvulsive Therapy
(ECT)
-pt is given a sedative
-last only a few minutes
-side effects: confusion, forgetfullness
Threats/alterations in mental health
-(causes)ADL's, self control and cognitive ability
-treatment: Meds in conjunction of therapy, control emotions,
Counseling
-Facilitator guides a group
-can be formal and informal
EPSE's (extrapyradimal side effects) for Antipsychotics
-Parkinsonism
-Akathesia
-Dystonia
-Tardive Dyskinesia
Uses of ECT
Used when other therapies are unsuccessful
-Mainly used for depression and Schizophrenia
Antidepressants (mood elavators)
(3 catergories)
-Cylic
-Tricylic
-MAOI's
Cognitive Therapy
(Rational Emotive Therapy)
-help rethink situations
-usually in groups
-ABC format
Tricylic (antidepressents)
Actions: increase serotonin and norepinephrine
Uses: treat depression
Examples: Elavil, Triavil, Tofranil, Pamelor
Nursing Considerations: educate
Goals of crisis intervention
1 Ensure safety
2 Diffuse the situation
3 Determine problem
4 Decrease anxiety
5 Return pt to precrisis level
Akathesia
(EPSE)...agitation, motor restlessness, continous movement of body(hands and mouth)
Crisis intervention
-body is out of Homeostasis
-risk for harm
-subjective
-5 phases/goals
Tardive Dyskinesia
(EPSE)...IRREVERSIBLE (early detection can regain control with use of anticholergics), lack of voluntary movements, rythmic movements (chewing, sucking, frowning, licking, and blicking)
Anticholinergics or Antiparkinsons drugs
-combat side effects
-commonly used: Congentin, Artane and Akineton
Antipsychotics (neuroleptics/
major tranquilizers)
Class: Phenothiazines
Action: (CNS to block dopamine)...calms, control agitation, decrease hallucinations and delusions
Uses: psychoatic behavior, violent, SCHIZOPHRENIA
Side effects: bld diseases, photosensitivity, EPSE's(extrapyradimal side effects), weight gain, edema, constipation, decrease sex interest
Examples: Haldol, thorazine, Stelazine, Prolixin
Nursing considerations: Observation, watch for EPSE's, Educate patient