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19 Cards in this Set

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genotype and phenotype-
genotype?

alleles? dom? recessive?

phenotype?
genotype:
individual's genes

alleles:
alternate forms of a gene
-dom=uppercase letters
*homozygous dom=EE
-recessive=lowercase letters
*homozygous rec=ee
-heterozygous=Ee/diff

phenotype:
individual's phy. appearance
the struc of DNA-
discovered when?

what is it made of?

what are "Rungs"?

what are the four bases?

what equals what?

what kind of format? describe.
discovered 1953

two sides made up of:
phosphates and sugars

"Rungs":
made up of a 4 diff kinds of nitrogenous bases
-Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine

A=T
G=C

"Double helix" format:
twisted ladder
how does the DNA code for proteins-
particular sequence of?

the four nucleotides (AGCT) code for what?

what are the smallest units that can code for amino acids?

proteins are made of?

what determines protein struc.? this determines what?

what is a gene?
3 bases
(bases triplet) codes
1 amino acid=codon

20 amino acids

triplets of nucleotides bases
(A-G-C)

amino acids

amino acid seq/protein func.

string of codons
-specifies the entire amino acid seq of protein
how does info flow from genes to proteins-
to get from DNA written in one language(_______) to protein written in a diff language(__________)...

what is the first step? describe.

what is RNA?

what occurs? where?
-nucleotides bases
-amino acids

transcription:
transfer of genetic info from DNA into RNA

RNA is the bridge btwn DNA and protein synthesis

info is copied from DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA)

occurs in nucleus
translation-
what occurs?

what does the cell do?

where?

what does a protein =?
change in the language

the cell translates the base sequence of mRNA
-into the amino acid seq of polypeptide
-occurs on ribosomes
-tRNA
-amino acid chain=protein
genes-
what is a gene code for?

what are alleles? ex?

many what are carried where?
a trait:
hair, color, eye color, etc.

diff variations of a gene
blue, grn, brwn eyes alleles for eye color

many genes are carried on each chrom

Dom genes=CAP Letters
Recessive genes=LOWER Letters
chromosomes-
what are they?

what are in each chrom?

full set=? half set?

chroms come in what? are?

diploid# for human body cells?
haploid# for human sex cells?
constructed of tightly compacted DNA strands

mult. genes

full set=diploid=2n
half set=haploid=n

chroms come in pairs
homologous

diploid #=46
haploid #=23
other DNA factoids-
not all what makes up the genes?

what percentage of what for proteins?

there is a lot of "extra"DNA?
not all the DNA in chroms
makes up the genes

only 1.5% of all DNA codes for proteins

"junk" DNA
"Junk DNA"-
what percent of what is junk DNA exist, why?

name the possibilities?
98.5% of the human genome

poss #1:
energy to maintain less than the risk of potential damage to functioning genes if it were removed

Poss#2: might be reservior of DNA to build useful genes in future

poss#3:extra segments of DNA that might have evolved ways to prevent themselves from being removed
Law of Dominance-
what is it? offspring?
in a cross of parents
-that are pure for contrasting traits
-only one form of the trait will appear in the nxt gener.

all offspring will be heter.
-express dom trait
Law of Segregation-
what happens?
during the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm)
-the two alleles responsible for a trait spe from each other
-alleles for a trait
*"recombined" at fertilization
*producing the genotype for the traits of the offsprg
parent 1?

parent 2?
homologous chroms
replication in interphase
meiosis-seg alleles into gametes
gametes
fertilization
offspring

meiosis
law of indep assortment-
what is it?

use?
alleles for diff traits are distrib. to sex cells
(and offspring)

dihybrid crosses
indep assortment of two traits-
ex?
heter. peas are round and yellow
-to wrinkle/green
dihybrid cross-
define.

Mendel's what?

what occurs?
breeding exprt that tracks the inheritance of two traits

Mendel's "Law of Indep Assortment"

each pair of alleles segregates independently
-during gamete formation
Punnett Square-
what is it?
allows geneticists to predict the poss. genotypes and phenotypes
-of offspring
inheritance of genes on autosomes-
exs of autosomal recessive?
cystic fibrosis

phenylketonuria(PKU):
-resulting from the abnormal buildup of phenylalanine
-due to the lack of an enzyme
*that normally breaks it down

Tays-Sachs disease:
-affects primarily infants
-lack of an enzyme
*to break dwn lipids in the brain
pedigrees-
types?
autosomal recessive/
dom-always passed
sex-liked traits-
what are they? location?

what are the sex chroms?

genotype for females? males?

carried on what?
traits(genes)

located on the sex chromosomes

X and Y

XX genotype for females
XY genotype for males

carried on X chromosome