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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bower & Winzenz
4 learning conditions
(2)Sentence Reading
(3)Sentence Generation
-Cued recall performance was best for interacting imagery
Why Does Forming Interacting Images Associate Info In Memory
2 Reasons
(1)Memory for pictures is generally better than for words--Picture Superiority Effect
(2)Interaction helps tie info together in memory
Keyword Method
Used to remember translation of foreign language
(1)Pronounce the foreign word
(2)Find a keyword-English word that sound like all or part of foreign word
(3)Form an interacting image of the keyword & english translation of foreign word
Technique for Remembering Persons Name When You See Their Face
(1)When you hear the persons name, generate an english word that sounds like all or part of their name
(2)Pick a prominent feature of persons face
(3)Form an image of the name word interacting with the prominent facial feature
-Doubled chance of recalling the name correctly
Peg-Word Method
Used to remember a list of items in a specified order
(1)Memorize set of numbers & rhyming words
(2)Form interacting image using rhyming words & item being memorized
Memorizing Abstract Items - Peg-Word Method
Convert abstract items into concrete word that sounds like it
Method of Loci
Like Peg-Word - Memorize items in specific order
(1)Imagine taking a walk through familiar place
-At each landmark you form an interacting image of item to be memorized & the landmark
(eg)Item to remember = milk
Landmark = PUB
--Imagine milk spilling onto the PUB
Von Restorff Effect
Distinctive info is easier to retrieve than non-distinctive info
-Words can be made distinctive by presenting them in a different color, capital letters, read in a different voice
-May be due to the distinctive item having a unique retrieval cue (that is not overloaded)
(eg)Good memory for distinctive events:
-Natural Disasters
-Rare Accidents
Levels-of-Processing Effect
Craik & Lockhard
60 words presented 1 at a time followed by 1 of 3 questions
-Told not to memorize words just answer question
-Deeply processed words were remembered best
Craik & Tulving
Took subjects longer to make semantic decisions
-It may be processing time rather than level of processing that affects memory
-Gave subjects time-consuming shallow task - Had to make judgments about patterns of vowels & consonants
-Vowel Task--54%
-Semantic Task--76%
--Depth of processing is important, not how long or difficult processing task is
Intention to Learn
Craik & Tulving (#2)
Repeated 1st experiment but added incentives to the levels of processing task - $
-Typecase = 6C-->51%
-Rhyme = 3C-->62%
-Category = 1C-->82%
--Paying subjects had NO effect on recognition
-The qualitative nature of the task, kind of operations carried out determines retention
2 Things That Make Semantic Level Work
(1)Depth or distinctiveness-Depth at which an item is processed - Deeply procesed words remembered best-Deep processing forms distinctiveness
-Not time or difficult
(2)Associations-Semantic info consists of highly detailed & richly interconnected assoiciations
Effects of Distinctiveness on Memory
-Levels of Processing
Deep processing forms distinctive memories
-Subject S has Synesthesia--A stimulus in 1 sense triggers responses in other sense modalities
Activates Existing Associations
(1)Semantic Levels of Processing
Semantic info consists of highly detailed and richly interconnected associations--Improves memory
-These associations (rather than the semantic nature of processing) aids memory
Study: Craik & Tulving
-Memory is better for words that subject answered yes to rather than no
Yes=93% No=63%
-To benefit from semantic processing, there must be existing associations in memory linking the studied words to info in the study task
(2) Slamecka & Graf
Memory is imporced when a person generates, rather than reads the info
-Subjects who generated words recalled the words much better than those who just read the words--Generation Effect
Self-Reference Task
Task that requires person to evaluate how well some item is descriptive of or relevant to themselves
-Shown 36 descriptive words-Mixture of high, medium, low likeable traits
-Control Group-Memorize Words
-Self-Reference Group-Rate how well word describes you
Control-Performance varied with word likeability
Self-Reference-Performance was better
Implicit memory
An unintentional, nonconscious form of retention
-Revealed when a person who may not remember prior experience with a task, performs the task readily
-Priming - (eg)Person finding way out of maze faster 2nd time but not remembering going through the 1st time
Warrington & Weiskrantz
Korsakoff amnesics & control patients - 8 5-letter high frequency words - tested 4 ways
(1)Free Recall
(3)Fragmented Words
(4)Initial Letters
--Recall & recognition-Amnesics did much worse
--Fragmented Words & initial letters-Performance was equal between groups
Implicit vs. Explicit Memory
Jacoby & Dallas
Normal memory consists of both an explicit(conscious) & an implicit(nonconscious/automatic) component
-Shown 60 5-letter words-Make 1 of 3 judments
(2)Perceptual Recognition-Level of processing has no effect on performance-Previously seen words are perceived better than new words--Priming
Implicit vs. Explicit
Graf, Mandler, & Haden
2 groups
(1)Elaborative processing-Rate each of 20 words on a 7pt scale for how much they liked it
(2)Surface processing-Decide if current word shared vowels with preceding word
2 TEsts
(1)Stem Completion-(2)Free Recall
--Level of processing affected free recall, not stem completion
--Even when they couldn't remember studying a word they tended to use the word to complete the stem
Systems View
Different neural structures underlie implicit & explicit memory
(1)Declarative Memory-Verbalizable Knowledge = Episodic & Semantic
(2)Procedural Memory-Skilled behavior, no conscious recollection = Skills, priming, classical conditioning
Processing View
Tranfer Appropriate Processing(TAP)
-performance on a test is best when the cognitive operations that are required by the test match those that were used during encoding
-Presented 42 item list-Free Recall & Word Completion
Picture Superiority Effect-39%pictures, 29%words
(1)Implicit Test - Word Fragment
-Pictures= 11%Priming rate, -Words= 27% priming rate
Words are better than pictures
(2)Picture-Fragment Completion
-Pictures= 17%priming rate
-Words= 31% priming rate
-Test performance is best when retrieval cues & processing at retrieval match those that occured in the study
Implicit Memory Tests
-Word Stem Completion
-Word Fragment Completion
-Picture Fragment Completion
Data-Driven Tests--Priming is enhanced by the studied stimulus physically matching all or part of the test stimulus
Implicit Memory Tests
Conceptually Driven
-Category Generation
-General Knowledge Questions
Priming may occur if previous processing of a word makes it more likely that it would be given as a response
Conceptually Driven--Priming is found to occur when processing of the stimulus is at a conceptual(semantic) level