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43 Cards in this Set

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Choice-supportive bias
remembering chosen options as having been better than rejected options (Mather, Shafir & Johnson, 2000).
Change bias
after an investment of effort in producing change, remembering one's past performance as more difficult than it actually was
Childhood amnesia
the retention of few memories from before the age of four.
Consistency bias
incorrectly remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour.
Context effect
that cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories (e.g., recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa).
a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a memory.
Egocentric bias
recalling the past in a self-serving manner, e.g. remembering one's exam grades as being better than they were, or remembering a caught fish as being bigger than it really was.
Fading affect bias
a bias in which the emotion associated with unpleasant memories fades more quickly than the emotion associated with positive events
Hindsight bias
the inclination to see past events as being predictable; also called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect.
Humor effect:
that humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.
Generation effect (Self-generation effect)
that self-generated information is remembered best. For instance, people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.
Illusion-of-truth effect
that people are more likely to identify as true statements those which they have previously heard (even if they cannot consciously remember having heard them), regardless of the actual validity of the statement. In other words, a person is more likely to believe a familiar statement than an unfamiliar one.
Lag effect
Leveling and Sharpening
memory distortions introduced by the loss of details in a recollection over time, often concurrent with sharpening or selective recollection of certain details that take on exaggerated significance in relation to the details or aspects of the experience lost through leveling. Both biases may be reinforced over time, and by repeated recollection or re-telling of a memory
Levels-of-processing effect
that different methods of encoding information into memory have different levels of effectiveness
List-length effect
Misinformation effect
that misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory.
Misattribution: when information is retained in memory but the source of the memory is forgotten. One of Schacter's (1999) Seven Sins of Memory, Misattribution was divided into Source Confusion, Cryptomnesia and False Recall/False Recognition
Modality effect
that memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received via speech than when they were received via writing.
Mood congruent memory bias
the improved recall of information congruent with one's current mood.
Next-in-line effect
that a person in a group has diminished recall for the words of others who spoke immediately before or after this person.
Osborn effect
that being intoxicated with a mind-altering substance makes it harder to retrieve motor patterns from the Basal Ganglion.
Part-list cueing effect
that being shown some items from a list makes it harder to retrieve the other items
Peak-end effect
that people seem to perceive not the sum of an experience but the average of how it was at its peak (e.g. pleasant or unpleasant) and how it ended.
the unwanted recurrence of memories of a traumatic event.
Picture superiority effect:
that concepts are much more likely to be remembered
Positivity effect
that older adults favor positive over negative information in their memories.
Primacy effect, Recency effect & Serial position effect
that items near the end of a list are the easiest to recall, followed by the items at the beginning of a list; items in the middle are the least likely to be remembered
Primacy effect, Recency effect & Serial position effect
that items near the end of a list are the easiest to recall, followed by the items at the beginning of a list; items in the middle are the least likely to be remembered
Processing difficulty effect
Reminiscence bump
the recalling of more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than personal events from other lifetime periods
Rosy retrospection
the remembering of the past as having been better than it really was.
Self-relevance effect
that memories relating to the self are better recalled than similar information relating to others.
Source Confusion
misattributing the source of a memory, e.g. misremembering that one saw an event personally when actually it was seen on television.
Spacing effect
that information is better recalled if exposure to it is repeated over a longer span of time.
Stereotypical bias
memory distorted towards stereotypes (e.g. racial or gender), e.g. "black-sounding" names being misremembered as names of criminals[1]
Suffix effect
the weakening of the recency effect in the case that an item is appended to the list that the subject is not required to recall (Morton, Crowder & Prussin, 1971).
a form of misattribution where ideas suggested by a questioner are mistaken for memory.
Telescoping effect
the tendency to displace recent events backward in time and remote events forward in time, so that recent events appear to be more remote, and remote events, more recent.
Testing effect
that frequent testing of material that has been committed to memory improves memory recall.
Tip of the tongue
phenomenon: when a subject is able to recall parts of an item, or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item. This is thought to be an instance of "blocking" where multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other[1]
Verbatim effect
that the "gist" of what someone has said is better remembered than the verbatim wording (Poppenk, Walia, Joanisse, Danckert, & Köhler, 2006).
Von Restorff effect
that an item that sticks out is more likely to be remembered than other items (von Restorff, 1933).
Zeigarnik effect
that uncompleted or interrupted tasks are remembered better than completed ones.