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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
3 Distinct stages of memory
1. Sensory Memory
2. Short Term Memory
3. Long Term Memory
Sensory Memory
Involves transforming sensory input into the type of data that can be understood and storing the information as auditory or visual. Information is temporary, with visual (iconic memory) lasting 1/2 sec, and sounds (echoic memory) lasting up to 4 secs.
Selective Attention
When there is much simultaneous visual and auditory information (like at party) only the information that is attended to can pass into short term memory. it can be DELIBERATE or AUTOMATIC. When it's not deliberate, the nervous systems makes choices for us. Most likely to be remembered? novel or related to satisfying basic needs
SHORT TERM MEMORY
STM work to process ongoing information and to store memories for a short duration UP TO 30 SECONDS. Divided into 2 components: PRIMARY & WORKING MEMORY
PRIMARY MEMORY
A passive holding tank for small amounts of inofrmation requiring no manipulation (i.e. digit span forward)
WORKING MEMORY
Not only holds information, but also manipulates it (i.e. digit span backwards)
REHEARSAL
The deliberate repetition, usually acoustic, of information to enhance STM or to enhance transfer to LTM. When interference tasks that prevent rehearsal are introduced, the contents of STM are lost.
Capacity of STM
Very limited, +- 7 items.
Chunking
Transforming separate items into meaningful units and thereby increases the ability to remember the items.
DUAL CODING SYSTEM FOR MEMORY
To process STM information, we use visual & verbal channels. We use visual system for remembering a flower in the form of a picture. We use a verbal system for processing words that are either SEEN or HEARD. The word "flower" is STM as a word pattern. People remember words they have seen or read better when they also create a visual image of the objects.
LONG TERM MEMORY
unlimited in capacity & duration.
RECENT MEMORY (intermediate): last about 2 weeks
REMOTE MEMORY (long term memory) last 2+ years
To be useful, it must stored so it can retrieved & updated.
REM & MEMORY
Research supports that during REM, new information brought into long term memory is reviewed, improved, and systematically catalogued. Dream deprivation can result in impairement in memory formation. Information is encoded & stored better when awake & alert.
EIDETIC MEMORY
The ability to retain an image of what is seen for a long period of time is also called "photographic" memory.
RETRIEVAL
Prcess of accessing information from LTM into STM for analysis or awareness. Cue will serve as stimulus to begin retrieval. Tasks that require recognition is generally easier than recall. method for improving recognition is called PRIMING.
PRIMING
Exposure to a stimulus that makes it easier for a person to recognize the stimulus at a later point in time. Example: "c_m_ra" = camera
ZEIGARNIK EFFECT
The tendency to remember and work on incomplete tasks. When trying to solve a problem involving recall and you come to an impasse, the brain keeps working unconsciously until a solution is obtained.
REDINTIGRATION
When something (SMELL) rapidly unlocks a chain of memories.
Example: the smell of wet earth reminds me of home
LANDMARK EVENTS
Refers to important events that serve as key markers for memory. We can use these events to go backward or forward to locate details of other events that occurred around the same time.
FLASHBULB MEMORIES
memories of distinct, significant events, usually of a traumatic nature. Since the memories evoke strong emotional reactions at the time of encoding, they tend to involve vivid detal and remembered for a long period of time. Usually able to remember what happened immediately before and after the event.
PROSPECTIVE MEMORY
Remembering what one had planned to do at particular time. Problems may include forgetting the purpose of a cue, like a timer ("why did I set that again?")
Effects of HYPNOSIS
person can actually provide more details about a memory. However, hypnosis tends to elicit more false memories than true ones. A person is more likely to reconstruct memories or use imagination to fill in the gaps, with great confidence that is accurate. They also tend to be easily influenced by leading questions and more likely to incorporate false information.
ACCURACY OF LTM
Can include additions, omissions and revisions of original events. usually accurate, the process of STM -> LTM frequently involves distortions. LTM relies heavily on semantic (meaning) features. Also, inferences are usually made and they're also filed into LTM. SOURCES of information are less accurately filed than the information itself.
EYEWITNESS REPORTS
Caution with reliability of eyewitness reports. Commonly inaccurate with a high degree of confidence.
REPRESSED MEMORIES
Traumatic memories thought to be completely repressed and therefore inaccessible. Evidence suggests traumatic memories are usually DIFFICULT to forget. Very rare to recover memories of early child abuse. Possible to construct false memories.
DECLARATIVE MEMORY
AKA Explicit Memory involves the CONSCIOUS recollection of information or experience:
SEMANTIC MEMORY
EPISODIC MEMORY
SEMANTIC MEMORY
the memory of meaning of words, facts and how they relate to each other (i.e. knowing there are 12 months in the year). Depends on our capacity to recall abstract information or images.
EPISODIC MEMORY
the capacity to recall autobiographical events, or when & where a specific event occurred. Retrieval involves reconstructing the original event in one's mind.
PROCEDURAL MEMORY
IMPLICIT or NONDECLARATIVE memory involves the recollection of skills, physical operations, and procedures that are remembered automatically without conscious awareness. Are not stored with respect to specific time or place, example: riding a bike after 10 years of not riding.
Forgetting & Ebbinghaus
Used mainly himself, plotted curves depicting memory of nonsense syllable lists and found the greatest amount of forgetting took place within the first hour.
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
On immediate recall of word lists, people remember words at the BEGINNING and at the END of the list, better than those in the middle.
ON DELAYED RECALL, word at the beginning are remembered mroe easily, while the middle and end words are remembered equally.
ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
Impairment in acquiring NEW memories (e.g. AFTER an accident or surgery)
RETROGRADE AMNESIA
Loss of memories for events that occurred before an injury or disease.
POST TRAUMATIC AMNESIA
loss of memory for events occurring a short after a trauma (e.g. the 1st few days after ECT)
PARAMNESIA
DISTORTION of memory and involves confabulation or type of errors when someone is trying to reconstruct the past.
RETRIEVAL FAILURE
when information that has been stored in long term memory cannot be retrieved or recovered. ("tip of tongue" phenomena)
INTERFERENCE
theory proposes that we forget because other material interferes with the ability to learn or retrieve the target material.
a. retro active interference
b. pro active interference
RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
INHIBITION occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability ot recall material learned in the past. Example: after reading section on memory, you have trouble remembering what you learned in a similar lecture 2 months ago
PRO ACTIVE INTERFERENCE
INHIBITION occurs when previously learned material interferes with the ability to learn or recall CURRENT materials. Example: what you learned 2 months ago interferes with what you trying to learn NOW
DECAY
memory deteriorates with the passage of time. Support has been difficult to obtain.
MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORY
tendency to remember materials better when their emotional state matches the states they were in when they learned the material.
STATE DEPENDENT MEMORY
tendency for people to remember material etter they are in a state similar to the state they were in when the learning took place.
MOTIVATED FORGETTING
(REPRESSION) concept developed by Freud, involves the unconscious active blocking of painful or disturbing memories.
ENHANCING MEMORIES
Chunking; imagary & association; recreation of context; study strategies; mnemonics;
CHUNKING
Involves combining separate items of information into meaningful units. Improves short-term memory.
IMAGERY & ASSOCIATION
Imagery and association can enhance memory. For example, pen & ocean can be remembering by thinking of a pen floating in the ocean.
RECREATION OF CONTEXT
mentally reviewing inofrmation associated with the material to be remembered.
STUDY STRATEGIES
distributed practice is better than massed practice (cramming). Material is less likely to be forgotten if it is rehearsed at regular intervals.
MNEMONICS
1. method of loci
2. peg word system
3. word associations
4. substitute word system
METHOD OF LOCI
forming a visual image of items on one's list and putting each in a specific place as one mentally walks through a room.
WORD ASSOCIATION
forming words or sentences with the first letter of the items being memorized or making up a story that connects all the items together. i.e. RIASEC for Holland's themes
SUBSTITUTE WORD TECHNIQUE
person breaks down the word to be remember into parts and substitutes words that are more familiar and can be visualized. example: "catabolize", can be broken down into "cat", "a ball" and "eyes".