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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory
The persostnece of learning overtime through storage and retreival of information.
Flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
the processing of info into the memory system-- for example, by extracting meaning
storage
the retention of encoded info over time
retrieval
the process of getting info out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory info in the mempry system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the 7 digits of a phone # while dialing, before the info is stored. WORKING MEMORY is a similar concept that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored info.
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
automative processing
unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency of well-learned info, such as word meanings
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehersal
the conscious repetition of info, wither to maintain it in consciousness or the encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yeild better long term retnetion that is acheived through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
the encoding of pictoral images
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sounds, esp. of words
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including hte meaning of words.
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, esp when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics
memory aids, esp those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of ausitory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
amnesia
the loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection, also called the procedural memory.
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." aka declaravive memory
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of timed saved when learning the material for a second time.
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
deja vu
the eerie sense that "Ive experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retreival of an earlier experience.
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info.
retractive learning
the disruptive affect of new learning on the recall of old info.
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading info inot one's memory of an event.
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined. (aka source misattribution) This along with teh misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.