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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is vaginitis or vulvovaginitis?
* the most common reason women seek gynecologic care
* increased vaginal discharge, vulvar irritation c pruritus, external dysuria or a foul odor
* indicates infectious abnormal organisms or overgrowth of normal flora
What is bacterial vaginosis (aka gardnerella vaginitis)?
Alteration of normal vaginal bacterial flora (loss of hydrogen lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria)
What are the symptoms/diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis?
* lots of watery, white/gray vaginal discharge with a foul "fishy" odor
* "clue cells" on a wet mount c no leukocytes
* also tested by the "whiff test"
* vaginal pH is usually greater than 4.5 (normal 3.8 - 4.2)
What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?
Non PG: Flagyl (metronidazole)
PG: need to avoid metronidazole during the first trimester (Clindamycin is the drug of choice during the first trimester)
Describe use of Flagyl (metronidazole)?
* antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent against trichomoniasis, amebiasis and bv
* contraindicated breastfeeding, first trimester,
* avoid alcohol (extreme nausea)
What is Vulvovaginal Candidiasis?
* candida albicans is responsible for 90% of vaginal yeast infections
What are the symptoms/diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis?
*thick curdy vaginal discharge, itching, dysuria, dyspareunia (male partner may experience rash or excoriation of penis)
* diagnosis by direct obsesrvation under microscope
* vagina ph remains 4.5 or less
What are the predisposing factors to yeast infections?
* use of oral contraceptive
* use of antibiotics
* pregnancy
* diabetes
* use of immunosuppressants
What is the treatment for yeast infections?
*topically applied azole drugs (intravaginal creams such as nystatin, miconzole, etc.)--oral fluconazole in a single dose is also effective
What is trichomoniasis?
STI caused by trichomonas vaginalis (protozoan that thrives in alkaline enviroment)--transmission through sexual contact, shared bath facilities, wet swim suits
What are the symptoms and diagnosis of trichomoniasis?
*yellow-green, frothy odorous discharge, vulvar itching, dysuria, dysparenuria
*diagnosis wetmount
*vaginal ph 4.5 or higher
* positive whiff test
What is the treatment for trichomoniasis?
* treatment for pregnant and nonpregnant women is Flagyl
Describe Chlamydia.
* the most common sti in the US (most frequently occurrng in active adolescents and young adults)
* the organism has several different immunotypes also responsible for lymphogranuloma venereum and trachoma (world's leading cause of blindness)
Describe complications of Chlamydia
PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy
Risks of Trichomoniasis in pregnancy
* prom, preterm birth and low birth weight
Describe the treatment for chlamydia.
non-pg: doxycycline or azithromycin
pg: erythromycin or amoxicillin
Risks of Chlamydia in pregnancy
*opthalmia neonatorum or chlamydial pneumonia
Describe symptoms of chlamydia
* asymptomatic is common (70%); male nongonococcal urethritis; may result in epididymitis and infertility