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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe 5 items to include in menstruation patient teaching
1) cycle length
2) amount of flow (25 - 60 ml)
3)length of menses (2 -8 days)
4) tampons, pads, tss
5) hygiene: front to back, vaginal sprays/douching
What is menorrhagia
Bleeding that is excessive in amount and duration, regular intervals
What is metrorrhagia
Bleeding of normal amount, occuring at irregular intervals
What is hypermenorrhagia
long duration of menstrual flow
What is hypomenorrhagia
short duration of menstrual flow
What is oligomenorrhea
bleeding, often irregular at intervals > 40 days
What is polymenorrhagia
bleeding, often irregular at intervals < 40 days
What is Intermenstrual bleeding
break through bleeding
Describe the link between tampons and TSS
risk increases with the length of time and level of absorbancy
What is primary amenorrhea
menstruation not established by age 16
What is secondary amenorrhea
established menses > 3 months ceases
What are the 4 most frequent causes of amenorrhea
1. Hypothalmic dysfunction (tumors, stress,weight loss, stress, excessive exercise)
2. Pituitary dysfunction
3. Ovarian dysfunction
4. Anatomic abnormalities
Describe 7 types of PMS symptoms (that occur after ovulation)
1. psychologic (irritability, lethragy, depression, etc)
2. neurologic: migraine, vertigo, syncope
3. respiratory: rhinitis, hoarseness, asthma
4. gastrointestinal: n/v constip, sweets craving
5. urinary: retention and oliguria
6. dermatologic: acne
7. mammary: swelling/tenderness
Describe PMS treatments
exercise, vitamin supplements, diuretics, calcium supplementation, prostaglandin inhibitors
Define menopause
the time when menses ceases for one year (marking end of reproductive abilities) usually 45 - 52 years of age
Define climacteric
change of life (referring to the whole host of psychological and physical alterations that occur around the time of menopause)
Define perimenopause
the period of time 2-8 years prior to menopause, characterized by decreased ovarian function
List 6 Symptoms of perimenopause
1. hot flashes vasomotor instability
2. irregular periods
3. PMS
4. insomnia
5. mood changes
6. weight gain
Describe 6 Physical changes in menopause
1. reproductive system: atrophy, decreased libido
2. vasomotor
3. musculoskeletal: decrease in estrogen and androgen cause decrease in bone density
4. skin: loss of protein/collagen
5. cardiovascular: increase in heart disease
6. cognitive function declines with age
Treatment of menopause discomforts
* hormone therapy used less frequently (b/c increased risk of breast cancer)
* lifestyle changes (weight bearing exercise, avoiding caffeine, alcohol, spicy foods)
* complementary therapies
Important things to know about Fosamax and Actonel
* Treatment for or prevention of ostoeporosis
* Calcium regulators that act by inhibiing bone resorption and increasing bone mass.
* must be taken on an empty stomach with water; woman must be upright for 30 min after taking medication and before eating
Important things to know about Evista
* acts like estrogen protecting against osteoporosis
* does not stimulate breast or uterine tissue
* may increase hot flashes
* does not relieve any menopausal symptoms
Benefits and risks of hormone replacement therapy
* estrogen or combined estrogen with progestin may relieve hot flasthes/night sweats, reverse vaginal atrophy and prevent osteoporosis
* may also relieve urinary sypmtoms and offer protection against colon cancer and Alzheimers
*increase risk of heart attack, stroke, blood clots and invasive breast cancer
Current HRT for severe menopausal symptoms
* short term (1 - 4 years)
* when benefits outweigh risks
Risk factors for osteoporosis
* caucasian
* small body frame, low weight
* nulliparity
* smoking, heavy alcohol intake, certain meds such as anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, lithium
* european/asian descent
* middle aged/elderly women
Describe salmon calcitonin
calcium regulator that may inhibit bone loss and is approved for use in women who are at least 5 years menopausal; administered as a nasal spray--not frequently used